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Thread: Third Rate ships of 74 guns.

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    Default Third Rate ships of 74 guns.

    HMS Albion (1763)

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    By John 'Vallack' Tom.

    HMS Albion was a 74-gun third-rate ship of the line designed by Thomas Slade. M/ shipwright Adam Hayes. She was launched on 16 May 1763 at Deptford, being adapted from a design of the old 90-gun ship Neptune which had been built in 1730, and was the first ship to bear the name. She was the first of a series of ships built to the same lines, which became known as the Albion-class ship of the line. Following the prototype, two sister ships were ordered in the post war period, and another pair with modifications to the original design during the 1777/78 period.



    History
    Great Britain
    Name:
    HMS Albion
    Ordered:
    1 December 1759
    Builder:
    Deptford Dockyard
    Launched:
    16 May 1763
    Honours and
    awards:
    Fate:
    Wrecked, April 1797
    General characteristics
    Class and type:
    Albion-classship of the line
    Tons burthen:
    1662 (bm)
    Length:
    168 ft (51 m) (gundeck)
    Depth of hold:
    18 ft 10 in (5.74 m)
    Propulsion:
    Sails
    Sail plan:
    Full rigged ship
    Armament:
    • Gundeck: 28 × 32-pounder guns
    • Upper gundeck: 28 × 18-pounder guns
    • QD: 14 × 9-pounder guns
    • Fc: 4 × 9-pounder guns

    She was commissioned in the May of 1770 for the Falkland Islands dispute, she then became a guardship at Portsmouth.

    In 1778 she was recommissioned for wartime service.

    She saw her first action in the
    American War of Independence in July 1779 at the indecisive Battle of Grenada, when the British Fleet under the command of Vice Admiral Byron managed to avoid defeat from superior French forces.

    Albion's next action was a year later on 17 April 1780, when British and French fleets met in the
    Battle of Martinique. A month later, on 15 May, the fleets met again and after a few days of maneuvering the head of the British line confronted the rear-most French warships. Albion, leading the vanguard of the British fleet suffered heavy casualties, but with little to show for it. Just four days later the two fleets clashed for the third time but again it was indecisive with Albion heavily engaged as before, suffering numerous casualties in the process.
    She was paid off in the December of 1781 and underwent repairs and coppering at Chatham prior to rearming as a 22gun floating battery there.

    In 1794 Albion was consigned to the role of a 60-gun floating battery armed with heavy carronades and moored on the
    Thames Estuary. She was positioned in the Middle Swin, seven miles north-east of Foulness Point, under the command of Captain Henry Savage.

    Fate.

    In April 1797, while heading to a new position in the Swin Channel, off
    Maplin Sands and Foulness she ran aground due to pilot error. Two days later, during salvage efforts, her back broke, and she was completely wrecked. HMS Astraea rescued Captain Henry Savage and his crew. The crew later transferred to the newly-built HMS Lancaster. The subsequent court-martial blamed the pilots, William Springfield and Joseph Wright, for imprudent maneuvering and going too far back before altering course. The court ordered that they lose all pay due to them and they never serve as pilots again.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    HMS Albion (1802)



    HMS Albion was a
    74-gun third-rate ship of the line of the modified Fame Class by Henslow. Built by Perry, Wells and Green,she was launched at Perry's Blackwall Yard on the Thames on 17 June 1802 and fitted out at Woolwich and Sheerness in 1803.



    History

    GREAT BRITAIN
    Name:
    HMS Albion
    Ordered:
    24 June 1800
    Builder:
    Perry, Wells & Green, Blackwall Yard
    Laid down:
    June 1800
    Launched:
    17 June 1802
    Honours and
    awards:
    Fate:
    Broken up, 1836
    General characteristics
    Class and type:
    Fame-classship of the line
    Tons burthen:
    ​1740 3294 bm
    Length:
    175 ft (53 m) (gundeck)
    Beam:
    47 ft 6 in (14.48 m)
    Depth of hold:
    20 ft 6 in (6.25 m)
    Propulsion:
    Sails
    Sail plan:
    Full rigged ship
    Armament:
    • Lower deck: 28 × 32-pounder guns
    • Upper deck: 28 × 18-pounder guns
    • QD: 2 × 18-pounder guns + 12 × 32-pounder carronades
    • Fc: 2 × 18-pounder guns + 2 × 32-pounder carronades
    • Roundhouse: 6 × 18-pounder carronades


    Napoleonic Wars.



    She was commissioned during her fitting out from the February of 1802 by Captain John Ferrier who continued in command until 1808.

    In the May of 1803 under the command of Ferrier and as the Flagship of Saumarez, she joined Admiral
    Cornwallis' fleet, which was blockading the vital French naval port of Brest. Albion, with Minataur and Thunderer took the 40 gun French Frigate La Franchaise and she was also amongst the vessels of the squadron that shared in the proceeds of the capture of:-

    Juffrow Bregtie Kaas (30 May 1803);
    Eendraght (31 May);
    Morgen Stern (1 June);
    Goede ferwachting (4 June);
    De Vriede (5 June).

    Albion was soon detached from the fleet to deploy to the
    Indian Ocean where she was to remain for several years.
    Albion and
    Sceptre left Rio de Janeiro on 13 October, escorting Lord Melville, Earl Spencer, Princess Mary, Northampton, Anna, Ann, Glory, and Essex. They were in company with the 74-gunthird rateships of the lineHMS Russell, and the fourth rateHMS Grampus. Three days later Albion and Scepter separated from the rest of the ships.
    On 21 December 1803, Albion and Sceptre captured the French privateer Clarisse at
    °18′S 95°20′E / 1.300°S 95.333°E / in the eastern Indian Ocean. Clarisse was armed with 12 guns and had a crew of 157 men. She had sailed from Isle de France (Mauritius) on 24 November with provisions for a six-month cruise to the Bay of Bengal. At the time of her capture she had not captured anything. Albion, Sceptre, and Clarisse arrived at Madras on 8 January 1804.

    On 28 February 1804, Albion and Sceptre met up in the straits of Malacca with the fleet of Indiamen that had just emerged from the
    Battle of Pulo Aura and conducted them safely to Saint Helena. From there HMS Plantagenet escorted the convoy to England.

    On 28 August 1808, Albion recaptured Swallow, which was carrying among other things, a quantity of gold dust.
    Next, Albion escorted to a fleet of nine
    East Indiamen returning to Britain. They left Madras on 25 October, but a gale that commenced around 20 November at 10°S 90°E / 10°S 90°E / -10; 90 by 22 November had dispersed the fleet. By 21 February three of the Indiamen —Lord Nelson, Glory, and Experiment— had not arrived at Cape Town. Apparently all three had foundered without a trace.
    Caroline, of Riga, arrived at Yarmouth on 17 August 1810 having been detained by Albion.


    War of 1812.


    In 1814, the year that Napoleon was finally toppled, and after a long period under extensive repair, she became flagship of Rear Admiral George Cockburn, taking part in a war (War of 1812) against the United States — a duty that the first Albion had once undertaken. In the summer of 1814, she was involved in the force that harried the coastline of Chesapeake Bay, where she operated all the way up to the Potomac and Patuxent Rivers, destroying large amounts of American shipping, as well as US government property. The operations ended once peace was declared in 1815.


    Post-war.

    Just a year later, Albion was part of a combined British-Dutch fleet taking part in the bombardment of Algiers on 27 August 1816, which was intended to force the Dey of Algiers to free Christian slaves. She fired 4,110 shots at the city, and suffered 3 killed and 15 wounded by return fire.



    Albion at the Battle of Navarino

    In 1827, she was part of a combined British-French-
    Russian fleet under the command of Admiral Codrington at the Battle of Navarino, where a Turkish-Egyptian fleet was obliterated, securing Greek independence. Albion suffered 10 killed and 50 wounded, including her second-in-command, Commander John Norman Campbell.




    In 1847 the Admiralty awarded the Naval General Service Medal with the clasps "Algiers", and "Navarino" to all surviving claimants from the battles.


    Fate.

    Albion was placed in ordinary in 1829 at Portsmouth. By mid 1830 she was being fitted out as a receiving ship, but completed as a lazarette in 1831. Then from 1832 to 35 she was in the quarantine service at Leith.
    She was finally broken up at
    Deptford Dockyard in the June of 1836.
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    Last edited by Bligh; 11-02-2019 at 15:29.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    HMS Alcide (1779)

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    HMS Alcide, the French and Italian version of "Alcides", another name for Heracles, was an Albion Class 74-gun third-rateship of the line,designed by Thomas Slade, M/shipwright Adam Hayes ordered on the 31st of August, 1774 and launched on the 30th of July, 1779 at Deptford Dockyard. She was fitted out and coppered at Plymouth between the April and June of 1780.




    History
    GREAT BRITAIN
    Name:
    HMS Alcide
    Ordered:
    31 August 1774
    Builder:
    Deptford Dockyard
    Laid down:
    4 June 1776
    Launched:
    30 July 1779
    Fate:
    Broken up, 1817
    Notes:
    General characteristics
    Class and type:
    Albion-classship of the line
    Tons burthen:
    1625
    Length:
    168 ft (51 m) (gundeck)
    Depth of hold:
    18 ft 10 in (5.74 m)
    Propulsion:
    Sails
    Sail plan:
    Full rigged ship
    Armament:
    • 74 guns:
    • Gundeck: 28 × 32-pounders
    • Upper gundeck: 28 × 18-pounders
    • Quarterdeck: 14 × 9-pounders
    • Forecastle: 4 × 9-pounders
    .
    She fought at the battles of
    Cape St Vincent off the southern coast of Portugal on the16th of January 1780 during the Anglo-Spanish War and Martinique also known as the Combat de la Dominique, which took place on the 17th of April 1780 during the American Revolutionary War in the West Indies. On the12th of September, 1780 Alcide captured the letter of marque Pocahontas. The Royal Navy took her into service as HMS Pocahontas.

    Her next outing in 1782 took her to the battles of
    St. Kitts on the 25th and 26th of January and the Saintes from the 9th to the 12th of April.

    Paid off after wartime service in the July of 1783, and had a small repair undertaken at Portsmouth completed in the December of 1784. She was recommissioned once more in the October of 1787 under Captain Benjamin Caldwell, and served as a guardship at Portsmouth in the May of 1790. She was under Captain Sir Andrew Snape Douglas for the period of the Spanish Armament and then returned to guardship duties until the March of 1793 when she was recommissioned under Captain John Woodley as the Flagship of Commodore Robert Linzee,for service in Admiral Hood's Fleet off Toulon. Whilst in the Med she also took part in the
    operations against Corsica in the September of 1793, and in the attack on Forneille on the first of October of that year.

    She was commanded by Captain Thomas Shivers from the May of 1794 as the Flagship of the newly promoted Rear Admiral Linzee. By the October of that year she was under Sir Thomas Byard as the Flagship of Vice Admiral Phillips Cosby.
    That November she was laid up in ordinary at Portsmouth, although she was listed as a receiving ship from1802 onwards.

    Alcide was finally broken up there in the May of 1817.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    HMS Alexander (1778)


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    Launch of HMS Alexander at Deptford in 1778 (BHC1875), by John Cleveley the Younger (NMM) - HMS Alexander is the ship still on the slipway, centre background


    HMS Alexander was a 74-gun Alfred Class
    third-rate ship of the Line designed by Sir John Williams. M/s Adam Hayes. Ordered on the 21st of July 1773, she was launched at Deptford Dockyard on 8 October 1778.



    History
    GREAT BRITAIN
    Name:
    HMS Alexander
    Ordered:
    21 July 1773
    Builder:
    Deptford Dockyard
    Laid down:
    6 April 1774
    Launched:
    8 October 1778
    Captured:
    6 November 1794, by French Navy
    FRANCE
    Name:
    Alexandre
    Acquired:
    6 November 1794
    Captured:
    22 June 1795, by Royal Navy
    GREAT BRITAIN
    Name:
    HMS Alexander
    Acquired:
    22 June 1795
    Honours and
    awards:
    Fate:
    Broken up, 1819
    General characteristics
    Class and type:
    Alfred-classship of the line
    Type:
    Third rate
    Tons burthen:
    1621 (bm)
    Length:
    169 ft (52 m) (gundeck)
    Beam:
    47 ft 2 in (14.38 m)
    Depth of hold:
    20 ft (6.1 m)
    Propulsion:
    Sails
    Sail plan:
    Full rigged ship
    Armament:
    • Gundeck: 28 × 32-pounder guns
    • Upper gundeck: 28 × 18-pounder guns
    • QD: 14 × 9-pounder guns
    • Fc: 4 × 9-pounder guns


    British service and capture.

    She was commissioned in the October of 1778. Then fitted out and coppered at Portsmouth in the December of 1779.
    On 13 March 1780, Alexander and
    HMS Courageaux captured the 40-gun French privateer Monsieur after a long chase and some exchange of fire. The Royal Navy took the privateer into service as HMS Monsieur.

    In the December of 1782 she was refitted and had her copper raised on each beam at Chatham.
    In the May of 1783 she was paid off following the secession of hostilities.

    In the October of 1791 she was fitted out at Chatham for Channel service, and commissioned under Captain Thomas West in the October of 1793.

    In 1794, whilst serving in Montague's Squadron and returning to England in the company of
    HMS Canada after escorting a convoy to Spain, Alexander, under the command of Rear-Admiral Richard Rodney Bligh, fell in with a French squadron of five 74-gun ships, and three frigates, led by Joseph-Marie Nielly. In the Action of the 6th of November, 1794 Alexander was overrun by the Droits de l'Homme, but escaped when she damaged the Droits de l'Homme's rigging. Alexander was then caught by Marat, which came behind her stern and raked her. Then, the 74 gun third-rateJean Bart closed in and fired broadsides at close range, forcing Bligh to surrender Alexander, having lost 40 killed and wounded in the action. In the meantime, Canada escaped. The subsequent court martial honourably acquitted Bligh of any blame for the loss of his ship.

    The French took her to Brest and then into their French Navy under the name Alexandre. On the 23rd June, 1795, she was with a French fleet off
    Belle Île when the Channel Fleet under Lord Bridport discovered them. The British ships chased the French fleet, and brought them to action in the Battle of Groix. During the battle HMS Sans Pareil and HMS Colossus recaptured Alexander. After the battle, HMS Révolutionnaire towed her back to Plymouth under the acting Captain Alexander Wilson.

    Return to British service.

    After a refit at Plymouth Alexander was recommissioned in 1796 under Captain Arthur Phillip for the Channel Fleet.
    In1797 under Captain Alexander Ball she sailed for the Med.

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    Alexander towing Vanguard, May 1798

    In 1798 Nelson was detached into the Mediterranean by
    Earl St. Vincent with HMS Orion, Alexander, Emerald, Terpsichore, and Bonne Citoyenne. They sailed from Gibraltar on the 9th of May and on the 12th of May were struck by a violent gale in the Gulf of Lion that carried away Vanguard's topmasts and foremast. The squadron bore up for Sardinia, Alexander taking Vanguard in tow.

    The Alexander took part in the
    Battle of the Nile in 1798, still under the command of Captain Alexander Ball. On the evening of the 1st of August, 1798, half an hour before sunset, the battle began. She was the second ship to fire upon the French fleet engaging the flagship, L'Orient. The Alexander sank three French ships before she had to withdraw due to a small fire on board. The Alexander was one of the few ships not carrying a detachment of soldiers.

    Northumberland, Alexander, Penelope, Bonne Citoyenne, and the brig Vincejo shared in the proceeds of the French polacca Vengeance, captured entering Valletta, Malta on the 6th of April.

    In the February of 1800 she was placed under the acting command of Lt. William Harrington for the Genereux's convoy on the 18th of that month.

    By the following February she was under the command of Captain Manley Dixon.
    In the April of 1806 she was back in Portsmouth and being fitted out as a lazerarette.

    Fate.

    She was finally broken up at Portsmouth in the November of 1819.

    Alexander served in the navy's Egyptian campaign between the 8th of March,1801 and the 2nd of September, which qualified her officers and crew for the clasp "Egypt" to the Naval General Service Medal that the
    Admiralty issued in 1847 to all surviving claimants.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    HMS Arrogant (1761)

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    HMS Arrogant was a 74-gun third rateship of the line, a modified Bellona class designed by Sir Thomas Slade M/shipwrights John Barnard and John Turner. Ordered on the 13th of December, 1758, she was launched on the 22nd of January, 1761 at Harwich. She was the first of the Arrogant class ships of the line of which only two were built during the Seven Years War. A further ten ships were subsequently built after 1773.



    History
    GREAT BRITAIN
    Name:
    HMS Arrogant
    Ordered:
    13 December 1758
    Builder:
    John Barnard & John Turner, Harwich Dockyard
    Laid down:
    March 1759
    Launched:
    22 January 1761
    Commissioned:
    January 1761
    Fate:
    Sold out o service, 1810
    General characteristics
    Class and type:
    Arrogant classship of the line
    Tons burthen:
    1644​5494 bm
    Length:
    • 168 ft 3 in (51.28 m) (gundeck)
    • 138 ft 0 in (42.06 m) (keel)
    Beam:
    47 ft 4 in (14.43 m)
    Depth of hold:
    19 ft 9 in (6.02 m)
    Sail plan:
    Full rigged ship




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    Commissioned in the January of 1761 she was fitted as a guard ship at Portsmouth.
    Refitted and recommissioned in the of 1768 she continued in her role as a guard ship until paid of in the June of 1771.

    There followed a major refit and coppering of her bottom at Chatham from the July of 1780 until the July of the year following, After a smaller repair over the winter of 1774-75 she was fitted for service in the channel in the may of 1790. After further repairs in 1792 and 94 she was commissioned for service once more under the command of Captain Richard Lucas, following which she sailed for the East Indies on the 3rd of April, 1795.

    She was on passage in time to take part in the siege and capture of the Cape of Good Hope. On the 9th of September, 1796 she was in action with Victorious against Sercy's squadron off Sumatra.
    In the March of 1798 she was commanded for a short time by Captain Edward Packenham, and then from the June of that year until 1803 by Captain Edward Osborn.

    In the January of 1799 Arrogant was with the British squadron at the defence of
    Macau during the Macau Incident.

    By 1804 she had been converted to a hulk at Bombay where she served as a receiving ship,
    sheer hulk, and floating battery. In 1810 she was condemned as unfit for further service.

    She was sold out of service and broken up there later in the year of 1810.

    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    HMS Audacious (1785)





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    HMS Audacious.



    HMS Audacious was a 74-gun third-rate Arrogant Class ship of the line M/Shipwright John Randall and Brent. She was ordered on the 22nd of October, 1782 and launched on the 23rd of July, 1785 at Rotherhithe. Completed at Deptford and Woolwich in the October of that year, she was the first ship in the British Navy to bear the name.



    History
    GREAT BRITAIN
    Name: HMS Audacious
    Builder: Randall, Rotherhithe
    Laid down: August 1783
    Launched: 23 July 1785
    Fate: Broken up, August 1815
    Notes: ·Participated in:
    ·Battle of the Nile
    General characteristics
    Class and type: Arrogant-classship of the line
    Tons burthen: 1624 bm
    Length: 168 ft (51 m) (gundeck)
    Beam: 46 ft 9 in (14.25 m)
    Depth of hold: 19 ft 9 in (6.02 m)
    Propulsion: Sails
    Sail plan: Full rigged ship
    Armament: ·74 guns:

    ·Gundeck: 28 × 32-pounders
    ·Upper gundeck: 28 × 18-pounders
    ·Quarterdeck: 14 × 9-pounders
    ·Forecastle: 4 × 9-pounders


    She was commissioned for service in the channel under Captain William Parker. On the 18th of November, 1793 she had a brush with Vanstable's Squadron, and was in action again on the 28th of May, 1794.



    Now under Captain Alexander Hood she sailed for the Med on the 23rd of May 1795. Audacious soon transferred to the command of Captain William Shield for the action off Hyeres on the 13th of July of that year.Next came her pursuit of Richery's fleet in September.

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    After this a return to Plymouth to effect repairs during the first three month of 1797. We saw her serving under Captain Davidge Gould in 1798. On the first of August of that year she took part in the Battle of the Nile, still under Gould's captaincy. During the battle she engaged the French ship Conquérant and helped to force her surrender.



    She became the Flagship of Vice Admiral Lord Keith 1n 1800,for the blockade of Genoa, and thence on to Malta.

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    Recommissioned in the March of 1801 under Captain Henry Curzon for the Channel Fleet in the June of that year she came under the captaincy first of Captain Sir Robert Barlow and then in short order, Captain Shouldham Peard in the Squadron of Saumarez and went on to take an active part in the battle of Algesiras on the 6th of July of that year and following that at the Gut of Gibralter on the 12th of the same month.



    In the April of 1802,Audacious embarked for service in the Leeward islands, but was back for a refit at Plymouth between the April and August of 1805.Recommissioning took place under Captain John Lawford.



    In 1806 she saw service in Strachan's squadron under Captain John Lamour, and then Captain Matthew Scott.



    In 1807 she was in the Channel Fleet once more under Captain Thomas Le Marchant Gosselin, until 1809. During this period she saw service in the Baltic, at Corunna, and then in the operations off the Scheldt estuary.

    In the March of 1810,under Captain Donald Campbell she was at the Texel, and later that year sailed to Portugal.



    She was laid up in ordinary at Chatham in the November of 1811, and finally broken up there in the August of 1815.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    HMS Bedford (1775)

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    Royal Oak Class

    HMS Bedford was a 74-gun third rate. ship of the line of the Royal Oak Class ordered in the December of 1768 and designed by Sir John Williams. M/ shipwright William Grey to the March of 1773 She was completed by Nicholas Phillips and launched on the 27th of October, 1775 at Woolwich.


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    Plan of Bedford



    History
    Great Britain
    Name:
    HMS Bedford
    Ordered:
    12 October 1768
    Builder:
    Woolwich Dockyard
    Laid down:
    October 1769
    Launched:
    27 October 1775
    Fate:
    Broken up, 1817
    Notes:
    General characteristics
    Class and type:
    Royal Oak-classship of the line
    Tons burthen:
    1606 (bm)
    Length:
    168 ft 6 in (51.4 m) (gundeck)
    Beam:
    46 ft 9 in (14.2 m)
    Depth of hold:
    20 ft (6.1 m)
    Propulsion:
    Sails
    Sail plan:
    Full rigged ship
    Armament:
    • Gundeck: 28 × 32-pounder guns
    • Upper gundeck: 28 × 18-pounder guns
    • QD: 14 × 9-pounder guns
    • Fc: 4 × 9-pounder guns


    Early service.

    Bedford was Commissioned in the December of 1777 for wartime service.

    American Revolutionary War.



    In 1780, Bedford fought at the
    Battle of Cape St Vincent. Later, she was part of the squadron under Vice-Admiral Mariot Arbuthnot. Under the command of Captain Sir Edmund Affleck, she fought in two engagements against the Comte de Grasse; at the Battle of St. Kitts (25–26 January 1782) under Admiral Samuel Hood, and the Battle of the Saintes (9–12 April 1782) under Admiral Rodney. Her crew was paid off and disbanded in the summer of 1783, and the vessel herself was put into ordinary.

    In 1987 she was fitted as a guard ship at Portsmouth Recommissioned under captain
    Robert Mann in the June of that year for the Spanish Armament.

    Paid off again in 1791 for some months she was a guard ship at Portsmouth under Captain Sir Andrew Snape Hammond. Then as flagship to Vice Admiral Mark Millbank in the Evolutionary squadron during 1792.
    Recommissioned in the January of 1793 under Captain Robert Mann once more, she sailed for the Med on the 22nd of May, 1793 to Join Admiral Hood's Fleet at Toulon. Mann remained with her until late 1794 and in the
    Raid on Genoa on the 17th of October succeeded in capturing the 36 gun Frigate La Modeste.

    French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.

    In 1794 she came under the Flag of Sir Hyde Parker.In 1795 she was in the Mediterranean under Captain
    Davidge Gould. She was with Vice-Admiral Hotham's squadron off Genoa on 14 March when it captured Ça Ira and Censeur. During the engagement Bedford suffered such damage to her masts and rigging that she had to be towed out of the action. Bedford's casualties numbered seven men killed and 18 wounded, including her first lieutenant.

    Bedford was also present on 13 July when the British fleet engaged the Toulon fleet in an indecisive action. Only a few British vessels exchanged fire with the French before they withdrew. If Bedford participated at all, she did not suffer any casualties. The British did capture one vessel,
    Alcide, but she caught fire and blew up.

    In September 1795, Bedford was part of the force escorting 63 merchants of the Levant convoy from Gibraltar. The other escorts were the 74-gun ship
    HMS Fortitude, the frigates HMS Argo, the 32-gun frigates Juno and HMS Lutine, and the fireshipTisiphone, and the recently captured Censeur. The convoy called at Gibraltar on 25 September, at which point thirty-two of the merchants left that night in company with Argo and Juno. The rest of the fleet sailed together, reaching Cape St Vincent by the early morning of 7 October. At this point a sizable French squadron was sighted bearing up, consisting of six ships of the line and three frigates under Rear-Admiral Joseph de Richery. Eventually Censeur struck, and the remaining British warships and one surviving merchant vessel of the convoy made their escape. On 17 October Argo and Juno brought in to British waters their convoy of 32 vessels.

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    Battle of Camperdown by Thomas Witcombe.

    In 1797 Bedford saw action in Duncan's Fleet at the
    Battle of Camperdown on the 11th of October, 1797,under the command of Captain Sir Thomas Byard. During the action she suffered 30 killed and 41 wounded.

    By 1799 she was out of commission at Plymouth. The next year she was fitted out there as a
    prison ship. Between September 1805 and October 1807 Bedford underwent extensive repairs and then was prepared for foreign service. In October she was commissioned by Captain James Walker. To man Bedford the Navy transferred over Bellerophon's petty officers and crew.

    Bedford then joined Rear-Admiral Sir
    Sidney Smith who was assisting the Portuguese royal family in its flight from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. The flotilla that left Lisbon consisted of Marlborough, London, Monarch and Bedford, eight Portuguese ships of the line, four frigates, three brigs and a schooner, as well as many merchant vessels. Smith estimated the total number of Portuguese vessels as 37. The flotilla left on 11 November 1807 and reached Rio de Janeiro on 7 March 1808. While she was in Brazil Bedford was for a short time in 1808-9 under the command of Captain Adam Mackenzie (or M'Kenzie) of President.

    War of 1812.

    In September 1814 Captain Walker took command of a squadron that carried the advance guard of Major General Keane's army, which was moving to attack New Orleans. Bedford arrived off Chandeleur Island on 8 December 1814 and the troops started to disembark eight days later. Sir
    Alexander Cochrane and Rear-Admirals Pulteney Malcolm and Edward Codrington went ashore with the army. Between 12–14 December Bedford's boats, under the command of Lieutenant John Franklin, participated in the Battle of Lake Borgne, in which she lost one man killed and four or five men wounded, including Franklin and two other officers. Bedford then contributed most of her officers and 150 men to land operations. During these operations Franklin helped dig a canal to facilitate the movement of troops. By default Walker became senior officer of the ships of the line, which were anchored 100 miles from the battle area as the waters were too shallow to permit these largest vessels to approach more closely.

    Post-war and fate.

    Paid off in 1815, soon after news of the
    Treaty of Ghent, which had ended the war, arrived, Bedford and Iphigenia sailed to Jamaica. There they collected a home-bound convoy.

    In 1816 Bedford was taken out of commission at Portsmouth. She was broken up in 1817.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    HMS Bellerophon (1786)



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    HMS Bellerophon, detail from Scene in Plymouth Sound in August 1815, an 1816 painting by John James Chalon



    HMS Bellerophon was an Arrogant Class 74-gunthird-rateship of the line modified from a design by Slade.M/shipwrights Edward Greaves and Co. Ordered on the 8th of November, 1782 she was built at Frindsbury, near Rochester in Kent and launched on the 17th of, October,1786. She was fitted for sea at Chatham.


    History
    GREAT BRITAIN
    Name: Bellerophon
    Ordered: 11 January 1782
    Builder: Edward Greaves and Co., Frindsbury
    Laid down: May 1782
    Launched: 6 October 1786
    Completed: By March 1787
    Renamed: Captivity on 5 October 1824
    Reclassified: Prison ship from 1815
    Nickname(s): Billy Ruffian
    Fate: Broken up in 1836
    General characteristics
    Class and type: Arrogant-classship of the line
    Tons burthen: 1,612 ​7894 (bm)
    Length: ·168 ft (51.2 m) (gundeck)

    ·138 ft (42.1 m) (keel)
    Beam: 46 ft 10 12 in (14.3 m)
    Depth of hold: 19 ft 9 in (6.0 m)
    Sail plan: Full rigged ship
    Complement: 550
    Armament: ·Lower gundeck: 28 × 32-pounder guns

    ·Upper gundeck: 28 × 18-pounder guns
    ·Quarterdeck: 14 × 9-pounder guns
    ·Forecastle: 4 × 9-pounder guns

    Bellerophon was initially laid up in ordinary, briefly being commissioned under Captain Thomas Pasley in the July of 1790 during the Spanish and Russian Armaments, and then laid off again in the September of 1791.

    In the April of 1794 under Captain William hope, she entered service with the Channel Fleet, commanded by the now Rear Admiral Pasley, on the outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars.

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    She took part in the "Glorious First" on the 1st of June 1794, which was the first of several fleet actions of the wars. In the action, which was hotly contested, she lost four killed and twenty seven wounded including the Rear Admiral, who later received a knighthood for his part in the battle.



    Bellerophon narrowly escaped being captured by the French in 1795, whilst under the command of Captain Lord James Cranstoun when her squadron was nearly overrun by a powerful French fleet, but the bold actions of the squadron's commander, Vice-Admiral Sir William Cornwallis, caused the French to retreat.

    In the May of 1796 she was placed under the command of Captain John Loring and then later in the year under Captain Henry d'Esterre Darby.



    She played a minor role in efforts to intercept a French invasion force bound for Ireland in 1797, and then joined the Mediterranean Fleet under Sir John Jervis. Detached to reinforce Rear-Admiral Sir Horatio Nelson's fleet in 1798, she took part in the decisive defeat of a French fleet at the Battle of the Nile on the !st of September of that year, where she lost 49 killed and 148 wounded.

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    She then returned to England for a refit and repairs at Portsmouth.
    Bellerophon then departed for Jamaica in the West Indies during the December of 1801. She was once more under the command of Loring, and she spent the Peace of Amiens on cruises and convoy escort duty between the Caribbean and North America.



    With the resumption of the wars with France, Bellerophon,now under Commodore Loring's Squadron, took the 74 gun Le Duquesne and the 16 gun L'Oiseau off San Domingo on the 25th of July, 1803.



    Returning to British waters she next joining a fleet under Vice-Admiral Cuthbert Collingwood blockading Cadiz. The reinforced fleet, by then commanded by Horatio Nelson, engaged the combined Franco-Spanish fleet when it emerged from port. At the Battle of Trafalgar on the 21st of, October 1805 Bellerophon fought a bitter engagement against Spanish and French ships, sustaining heavy casualties of 27 killed and 123 wounded, including the death of her captain, John Cooke.



    After repairs at Plymouth, Bellerophon was employed blockading the enemy fleets in the Channel and the North Sea. under the command of Richard Thomas during 1806, and Captain Edward Rotherham from 1807 to 08 as the Flagship of Rear Admiral Albamarle Bertie.



    Under Captain Samuel Warren from the May of 1808 she joined the Squadron of Rear Admiral Alan Garner as his Flagship in the Baltic. She plied those waters throughout 1809, making attacks on Russian shipping, and by the August of 1810 was off the French coast again, blockading their ports under the command of Captains Lucius Hardyman, and from the June of 1811.John Halstead serving as the Flagship of Rear Admiral Sir John Ferrier until 1812.



    In the February of 1813 she first came under the command of Captain Augustus Brine, and then Captain Edward Hawker from the March of that year, as the flagship of Sir Richard Keats. She sailed to Newfoundland, North America in April as a convoy escort, in which role she continued to serve between 1813 and 1814, during which time she captured the 16 gun privateer Le Genie. In the March of 1814 she came under the command of Captain Frederic Maitland, before returning home to England.



    In 1815 she was assigned to blockade the French Atlantic port of Rochefort.


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    In the July of that year, having been finally defeated at the battle of
    Waterloo, and finding escape to America prevented by the blockading Bellerophon, on the 15th of July, Napoleon was allowed aboard "the ship that had dogged his steps for twenty years" (according to the naval historian David Cordingly). In taking his surrender on the deck of the ship Captain Maitland was performing what was to prove be Bellerophon's last act in her distinguished seagoing service.


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    Napoleon on the Bellerophon by Eastlake.



    In the December of 1815 she was paid off and converted at Sheerness for service as a convict hulk. Renamed Captivity on the 5th of October,1824 to free the name for another ship, she was refitted and moved to Plymouth in 1826. Here she was to remain in service as a prison ship until 1834, when the last convicts left.

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    The Admiralty ordered her to be sold at Plymouth on the 21st of January,1836, and she was then broken up.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    HMS Bellona (1760)

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    HMS Bellona
    was a 74-gun ship of the line,designed by Sir Thomas Slade,from which the Bellona-class took its name. Ordered on the 28th of December,1757 and built by M/shipwright John Locke, she was a prototype for the iconic 74-gun ships of the latter part of the 18th century. "The design of the Bellona class was never repeated precisely, but Slade experimented slightly with the lines, and the Arrogant, Ramillies, Egmont, and Elizabeth classes were almost identical in size, layout, and structure, and had only slight variations in the shape of the underwater hull. The Culloden class ship of the line was also similar, but slightly larger. Thus over forty ships were near-sisters of the Bellona." Bellona was built at Chatham, starting on the10th of May.1758, and launched on the 19th of February, 1760.


    History
    Great Britain
    Name: HMS Bellona
    Ordered: 28 December 1757
    Builder: Chatham Dockyard
    Laid down: 10 May 1758
    Launched: 19 February 1760
    Honours and
    awards:
    Battle of Copenhagen
    Fate: Broken up, 1814
    General characteristics
    Class and type: Bellona-class74-gunship of the line
    Tons burthen: 1615 bm
    Length: 168 ft (51 m) (gundeck), 138 ft (42 m) (keel)
    Beam: 46 ft 11 in (14.30 m)
    Draught:
    21 ft 6 in (6.55 m)
    Depth of hold: 19 ft 9 in (6.02 m)
    Propulsion: Sails
    Sail plan: Full rigged ship
    Complement: 650 officers and men
    Armament: ·Lower gundeck: 28 × 32 pounder guns

    ·Upper gundeck: 28 × 18 pounder guns
    ·
    QD: 14 × 9 pounder guns
    ·
    Fc: 4 × 9 pounder guns


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    Bellona
    was commissioned in the February of 1760 under Captain Peter Denis and sailed to join the squadron blockading Brest during the Seven Years' War on the 8th of April. She was later detached to patrol off the Tagus River in Spain, and on 13th of August 1761, while sailing in company with the frigateBrilliant, she sighted the French 74-gun ship Courageux and two frigates. The British ships pursued, and after 14 hours, caught up with the French ships and engaged them in combat on the14th of August . The Brilliant attacking the frigates, and Bellona the Courageux. The frigates managed to slip away. Not so the Courageux who was forced into striking her colours, taken as a prize and purchased into the Royal Navy.

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    The action of 14 August 1761 off Cape Finisterre at which HMS Bellona captured the French ship Courageux



    In 1763 Bellona was paid off and became a guard ship at Portsmouth until 1771 when she underwent a large refit there, including having her bottom coppered, being one of the first British ships to receive this hull-protecting layer. This notwithstanding she did not see action again until 1780, during the American Revolutionary War. She spent the time until 1783 cruising in the North Sea and the West Indies, and participated in reliefs of Gibraltar.



    Bellona
    was once again paid off, recommissioned briefly in the July of 1789 as a guard ship once more, then recommissioned in the expectation of war with Russia, but didn't get into action again until the March of 1793, when after yet another recommissioning under Captain George Wilson she finally set out for the West Indies on the 13th of October 1794.



    In company with the Alarm she took the 36 gun Le Duquensne and the 20 gun Le Duras on the 5th of January, 1795. On the 11th of May she took the privateer schooner La Bellone, returned home and the was assigned to the Leeward Islands on the13th of February 1796.



    She was next attached to Elphinstone's squadron at the Cape of Good Hope in time for the surrender of the Dutch squadron at Saldanha Bay on the 17th of August.

    On the 10th of January, 1797, Bellona and Babet encountered Legere, a small French privateer schooner of six guns and 48 men, which they drove ashore on Deseada. They then tried to use a second captured privateer to retrieve the schooner Legere that was beached on the shore. In the effort, both French privateers were destroyed. Then Babet chased a brig, which had been taken as a prize by the schooner,and drove that ashore also. The British were unable to re float her, so they also destroyed the Brig. Babet and Bellona were eventually paid head money for these two actions in 1828, more than 30 years after the event took place.



    In the February of 97,
    Bellona was present at the capture of Trinidad, and in 1798 she was back in the Channel Fleet under Captain Sir Thomas Thompson, from the February of 1799. In the May of that year she sailed with Markham's squadron and took part in the Action of the 18th of June,1799, where she forced the surrender of the frigates Le Junonand L' Alceste, and helped HMS Centaur in the capturing of La Courageuse, plus the18 gun La Salamine and 14 gun L'Alerte.



    In the expedition to Denmark during 1801, she took part in the Battle of Copenhagen on the second of May of that year, in spite of having run aground on a shoal. In this action Bellona suffered casualties of 11 killed and and 72 wounded including Captain Thompson.



    Under Captain Thomas Bertie from the May of 1801,she served in the Irish sea, at Cadiz, and then the West Indies until being paid off in the July of 1802.

    Recommissioned in the July of 1805 under Captain Charles Painter she joined Strachan's squadron, but left before the 3rd 0f November. Under Captain John Erskine Douglas she re joined Strachan in the February of 1806 for the pursuit of Leissegues and Willaumez. She was in at the destruction of the 74 gun L'Impetueux off Cape Henry on the 14th of September, 1806.



    For the action at Basque Roads in 1809 she was commanded by Captain Stair Douglas, and also for the operations off the Scheldt.

    After a refit at the end of 1809, still under Douglas she took the French Privateer Le Heros du Nord in the North Sea on the 18th of December 1810.

    In 1813 she was paid off for the final time and went into ordinary at Chatham, She was broken up in the September of 1814, having served in the navy for over 50 years, an uncharacteristically long time for one of the old wooden warships to have survived.



    Bellona in fiction.



    Bellona
    appears in the Patrick O'Brian novels The Commodore and The Yellow Admiral as the pennant ship of a squadron led by the character Jack Aubrey
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    HMS Berwick (1775)

    HMS Berwick was a 74-gun Elizabeth-classthird rate ship of the line, ordered on the 12th of October,1768 and designed by Sir Thomas Slade. M/shipwright Thomas Bucknall until the October of 1772 and completed by Edward Hunt. She was launched at Portsmouth Dockyard on the18th of April, 1775.

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    History
    Great Britain
    Name:
    HMS Berwick
    Ordered:
    12 December 1768
    Builder:
    Portsmouth Dockyard
    Laid down:
    May 1769
    Launched:
    18 April 1775
    Captured:
    8 March 1795, by the French
    Notes:
    France
    Name:
    Berwick
    Acquired:
    8 March 1795
    Honours and
    awards:
    Battle of Trafalgar
    Captured:
    21 October 1805, by Royal Navy
    Fate:
    Wrecked, 22 October 1805, in the storm following the Battle of Trafalgar
    General characteristics
    Class and type:
    Elizabeth-classship of the line
    Tons burthen:
    1622​5694 (bm)
    Length:
    168 ft 6 in (51.4 m) (gundeck)
    Beam:
    47 ft (14.3 m)
    Draught:
    • Unladen:18 ft (5.5 m)
    • Laden:47 ft (14.3 m)
    Depth of hold:
    12 ft 10 in (3.9 m)
    Propulsion:
    Sails
    Sail plan:
    Full rigged ship
    Armament:
    • Lower deck: 28 × 32-pounder guns
    • Upper deck: 28 × 18-pounder guns
    • QD: 14 × 9-pounder guns
    • Fc: 4 × 9-pounder guns


    Royal Navy service.


    As one of the newest ships of the line, she was commissioned in December 1777. fitted and coppered at Portsmouth, on the entry of France into the
    American War of Independence in 1778 Berwick joined the Channel Fleet. In the July of that year, she took part in the Battle of Ushant under the command of Captain the Hon. Keith Stewart.


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    Battle of Ushant.

    She served with the Channel Fleet throughout 1779.
    In 1780 she was sent out to the West Indies as part of a squadron under Commodore Walshingham that was sent out to reinforce the fleet under Sir George Rodney. But Walshingham's ships arrived too late for the battles of that year and she was then sent to Jamaica. The lieutenant on this trip was
    John Hunter, who later became an admiral and the second Governor of New South Wales.
    While Berwick was on the
    Jamaica station, she received serious damage from the October 1780 West Indies hurricane, which completely dismasted her and drove her out to sea. The damage forced her to return across the Atlantic to England for repairs.

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    Representation of the Distressed Situation of His Majesty's Ships Ruby, Hector, Berwick and Bristol when Dismasted in the Great Hurricane, 6 October 1780

    After repairs, Berwick sailed to the North Sea where Captain Stewart became commander in chief of the station. The North Sea was becoming an increasingly important convoy route because French and Spanish squadrons cruising in the Western Approaches to the Channel had made that route unsafe for British convoys.

    In 1781 Berwick was under the command of Captain John Ferguson. On 17 April she, with
    Belle Poule, captured the privateer Callonne, under the command of Luke Ryan.Calonne was only two years old, a fast sailer, and well equipped for a voyage of three months. She had a crew of 200 men and was armed with twenty-two 9-pounder guns, six 4-pounder guns, and six 12-pounder carronades.

    When the British Admiralty received news that the Dutch, who had joined the war at the beginning of 1781, were fitting out a squadron for service in the North Sea, it reinforced Berwick with a squadron under Vice-Admiral
    Sir Hyde Parker, who had hoisted his flag in Fortitude. Berwick also received two 68-pounder carronades for her poop deck.
    On 15 August, while escorting a convoy of 700 merchantmen from
    Leith to the Baltic, Parker's squadron of seven ships of the line met a Dutch squadron under Rear-Admiral Johan Zoutman, also consisting of seven ships of the line, but also encumbered with a convoy. In the ensuing Battle of Dogger Bank, Berwick suffered a total of 16 killed and 58 wounded.

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    Battle of the Dogger Bank.


    At the conclusion of the war, Berwick was paid off in 1783 and laid up
    in ordinary at Portsmouth.
    After undergoing a small repair between the May of 1786 and the June of the following year, she was not commissioned again until the1st of January,1793 under Captain Sir John Collins. At the outbreak of the
    French Revolutionary Wars he sailed her out for the Mediterranean on the 22nd of May to join the fleet under Admiral Lord Hood. Under Hood, Berwick participated in Toulon operations in the latter part of that year. Collins died in the March of 1794, and the ship was subsequently commanded by Captains William Shield, George Campbell, George Henry Towry, and ultimately, William Smith.

    Capture.

    In early 1795 Berwick had been refitting in San Fiorenzo Bay, Corsica, when her lower masts, stripped of rigging, rolled over the side and were lost. A hasty court martial dismissed Smith, the First Lieutenant, and the Master from the ship. After fitting a jury rig, Berwick, under Captain Adam Littlejohn, sailed to join the British fleet at Leghorn, but ran into the French fleet. In the ensuing action the French captured Berwick on the 7th of March 1795.
    At 11 am, close off
    Cap Corse, the French frigate Alceste passed to leeward and opened fire within musket-shot on Berwick's lee bow. Minerve and Vestale soon took their stations on Berwick's quarter. By noon, her rigging was cut to pieces and every sail was in ribbons. During the battle four sailors were wounded and a bar-shot decapitated Littlejohn; he was the only man killed. Command then devolved upon Lieutenant Nesbit Palmer, who consulted with the other officers. Palmer decided that Berwick was unable to escape in her disabled state and that all further resistance was useless; he then ordered that Berwick strike her colours.
    The French towed her back to
    Toulon and subsequently commissioned her into the French Navy as Berwick, under Louis-Jean-Nicolas Lejoille.

    French Navy service.

    In September 1795, she sailed from Toulon for Newfoundland as part of a squadron of six ships of the line under Rear-Admiral de Richery. In October, Richery's squadron fell in with the British Smyrna convoy, taking 30 out of 31 ships, and retaking the 74-gun Censeur. The squadron then put into Cádiz, where it remained refitting for the remainder of the year.
    On 4 August 1796, Richery finally set sail from
    Cádiz for North America with his seven ships of the line. His squadron was escorted out into the Atlantic by the Spanish Admiral Don Juan de Lángara, with 20 ships of the line. In September, Richery destroyed the British Newfoundland fishing fleet.
    In November, Berwick returned to
    Rochefort with four of the other ships from Richery's squadron, before sailing on to Brest.
    By 1803, Berwick was back in the Mediterranean at Toulon.


    Napoleonic Wars.

    In March 1805, Berwick sailed for the West Indies as part of a fleet of 11 French ships of the line under Vice-Admiral Villeneuve. Off Cádiz, the fleet was joined by the 74-gun ship Aigle, and six Spanish ships of the line under Vice-Admiral Gravina. When the fleet reached the West Indies, Villeneuve sent Commodore Cosmao-Kerjulien with the Pluton and the Berwick to attack the British position on Diamond Rock, which surrendered on 2 June.
    When Villeneuve heard that
    Nelson had followed him to the West Indies, he sailed for Europe. Sir Robert Calder, with 15 ships of the line, intercepted the French off Cape Finisterre. After a violent artillery exchange, the fleets separated in the fog. Exhausted after six months at sea, the French anchored in Ferrol before sailing to Cádiz to rest and refit. With his command under question and wanting to meet the British fleet to gain a decisive victory, Villeneuve left Cádiz to meet the British fleet near Cape Trafalgar.

    Fate.


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    In 1805, Berwick fought at the Battle of Trafalgar, where HMS Achille re-captured her on the 21st of October. Berwick sank near San Lúcar on the following day, after her French prisoners cut her towing cables. Although Donegal was nearby and quickly sent boats, many of the c.200 persons including the British Prize crew aboard Berwick lost their lives.
    Last edited by Bligh; 11-15-2019 at 13:46.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    Bombay Castle (1782)


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    Bombay Castle by Thomas Witcombe.

    HMS Bombay Castle was a 74-gun
    third-rate Elizabeth-class ship of the line,ordered on the 14th of July, 1779 and built by Perry and Co. She was launched on the 14th of June, 1782 at Blackwall Yard.



    History
    Great Britain
    Name:
    Bombay
    Namesake:
    Bombay Castle
    Ordered:
    14 July 1779
    Builder:
    Perry, Blackwall Yard
    Laid down:
    June 1780
    Launched:
    14 June 1782
    Renamed:
    HMS Bombay Castle (17 February 1780)
    Fate:
    Wrecked, 1796
    General characteristics
    Class and type:
    Elizabeth-class ship of the line
    Tons burthen:
    1628, 1628​1994 bm
    Length:
    168 ft 6 in (51.4 m) (gundeck); 138 ft 3 18 in (42.1 m)
    Beam:
    47 ft 1 in (14.4 m)
    Depth of hold:
    19 ft 9 in (6.02 m)
    Propulsion:
    Sails
    Sail plan:
    Full rigged ship
    Armament:
    • Gundeck: 28 × 32-pounder guns
    • Upper gundeck: 28 × 18-pounder guns
    • QD: 14 × 9-pounder guns
    • Fc: 4 × 9-pounder guns




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    Origins.

    The British
    East India Company (EIC) funded the construction of Bombay Castle as a contribution to the war effort. Similarly, the EIC also paid for the construction of HMS Carnatic and HMS Ganges.
    She was commissioned in the May of 1782 under Captain James Cranston, but paid off in that same year.
    Recommissioned in the April of 1783 under Captain Herbert Sawyer she served as a guardship at Plymouth.
    From 1785 under Captain Robert Fanshaw until 1787 when she was refitted with copper bolts. In The February she was recommissioned. She came under Captain Anthony Molloy in 1789. She was fitted for sea at Plymouth in the May of 1790. and then came under the Captaincy of Captain John Duckworth for the Spanish Armament. Paid off in the September of 1791 for repairs at Plymouth, she recommissioned in the August of 1794 under Captain Thomas Southeby and sailed for the Med in the February of 1795.

    Loss.


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    Wreck of the Bombay Castle by Thomas Buttersworth.

    Bombay Castle was still under the command of Captain Thomas Sotheby when she entered the Tagus on the 21st of December 1796. Having taken a pilot on board. In attempting to avoid the store ship
    Camel, which had grounded ahead of Bombay Castle, she also ran aground. During the subsequent week, attempts were made to float her off after boats had removed her guns and stores, but without success. The navy abandoned her as a wreck six days later on the 27th of December.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

  12. #12
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    HMS Brunswick (1790)

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    In this painting by Robert Dodd, "A View of the Royal Dockyard at Deptford 28th March 1789", HMS Brunswick can be seen approaching completion, to the left of centre. The ship would be launched just over a year later. The three-decker being built behind HMS Brunswick is HMS Windsor Castle.



    An Admiralty designed ship of the Line ordered on the 7th of January 1785,HMS Brunswick was a 74-gun
    third rate, being the first of its class. Built at Deptford by M/shipwright Henry Peake until the March of 1787, and completed by Martin Ware. The first 74 to be designed and built after the end of the American War of Independence Brunswick showed a significant increase in her dimensions over previous vessels of the period. The ship was initially designed to carry a main battery of twenty-eight 32-pounder (15 kg) guns on the lower deck and thirty 18-pounder (8.2 kg) on the upper deck, with a secondary armament of twelve 9-pounder (4.1 kg) guns on the quarter deck and four on the forecastle.
    She was
    launched on the 30th of April, 1790.


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    HMS Brunswick seen passing Mount Edgecumbe on her way out of Plymouth, painted in 1793 by Dominic Serres.





    History
    GREAT BRITAIN
    Name:
    HMS Brunswick
    Ordered:
    7 January 1785
    Builder:
    Deptford Dockyard
    Laid down:
    May 1786
    Launched:
    30 April 1790
    Fate:
    Broken up, 1826
    Notes:
    General characteristics
    Class and type:
    74-gun third rateship of the line
    Tons burthen:
    1836 ​1394 (bm)
    Length:
    176 ft 2 12 in (53.7 m) (gundeck)
    Beam:
    48 ft 9 in (14.9 m)
    Depth of hold:
    19 ft 6 in (5.9 m)
    Propulsion:
    Sails
    Sail plan:
    Full rigged ship
    Armament:
    • Gundeck: 28 × 32 pdrs
    • Upper gundeck: 28 × 18 pdrs
    • Quarterdeck: 14 × 9 pdrs
    • Forecastle: 4 × 9 pdrs


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    Taken down the
    Thames to Woolwich where she was to be fitted-out. She was commissioned in May 1790 under Captain Sir Hyde Parker for the Spanish Armament but was not called into action. Commissioned once more under Captain Sir Roger Curtis for the Russian Armament which was also resolved without conflict. In the August of 1791, Brunswick took up service as a guardship in Portsmouth Harbour. During this time, on the 29th of October, 1792, three condemned mutineers from the Bounty were hanged from her yardarms.
    In the July of 1793, under Captain John Harvey, she joined
    Richard Howe'sChannel Fleet at the outbreak of the French Revolutionary War. Brunswick, was present at the battle on Glorious First of June off Ushant, where she a fought a hard action against the French 74-gun Vengeur du Peuplewith 41 of her crew killed,including Harvey, and 114 wounded.

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    HMS Brunswick fighting the Achille and Vengeur du Peuple

    Brunswick's next action occurred when she was under the command of Captain lord Charles Fitzgerald in a small squadron under
    William Cornwallis that encountered a large French fleet on June the16th and 17th, 1795. The British ships were forced to run into the Atlantic and narrowly avoided capture through a combination of good fortune and some fake signals.

    In the June of 1797 she was In the Leeward Islands under Captain William Rutherford, and in 1798 under Lieutenant Hugh Cook as acting Captain on the Jamaica station. By the May of1799 her Captain was Commander William Chilcott, and finally in the June of 1800 Captain James Wallis still based at Jamiaca.

    After a five-year spell in the
    West Indies, in the September of 1800 Brunswick returned home and was paid off. Refitted at Portsmouth, at this time her Roundhouse was removed and In the December of 1806, Brunswick's armament was changed so that all her guns fired a 24-pounder (11 kg) shot. This meant that the guns on the lower deck were downgraded while those on the upperdeck were upgraded. The guns on the forecastle were replaced with two 24-pounder long guns and four 24-pounder carronades, and on the quarter deck, the twelve 9-pounders were removed to make way for two long guns and ten carronades, all 24-pounders. The great guns on the upper decks were mounted on Gover carriages which enabled them to be handled by fewer men.
    She was recommissioned in the February of 1807 under Captain Thomas Graves and wes dispatched to join the Copenhagen expedition.
    Denmark was under threat from a French invasion, and Brunswick was part of the task force, under overall command of James Gambier, sent to demand the surrender of the Danish fleet in the Augfust of that year. When the Danes refused to comply, Brunswick joined in with an attack on the capital, Copenhagen.


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    Copenhagen after the bombardment painted by J. D. Moller


    Return to the Baltic.

    Following the
    Treaty of Tilsit, Russia became an enemy of the United Kingdom and Sweden, and in May 1808, Brunswick was sent back to the Baltic as part of a fleet, under James Saumarez. While attached to Richard Goodwin Keats' squadron in the August of that year, Brunswick assisted in the evacuation of 10,000 Spanish troops from the region. Initially fighting for Napoleon in Northern Germany and Denmark, the Spaniards had changed allegiance following the occupation of their country by the French. Keats in HMS Superb, accompanied by Brunswick, HMS Edgar and five or six smaller vessels were in close proximity at the time and were contacted by the Spanish commander-in-chief, the Marquis de la Romana, with a view to joining forces. On 9 August a plan was formulated for the Spaniards to seize the fort and town of Nyborg, allowing Keats' squadron to take possession of the port and organize the evacuation. Keats had 57 local boats loaded with the Spaniards' stores and artillery and taken to Slipshavn, four miles to the south-east, where, on 11 August, the troops were able to embark.

    Fate.

    She then went into Ordinary at Gillingham until 1812. In the June of that year she was fitted as a Prison ship under lieutenant H Sparkes until 1814 when she became a powder hulk at Chatham until the August of 1815. From this time onward she was used as a Lazarette at Stangate Creek until the October of 1825.
    Exactly a year later in the October of 1826 she was
    broken up at Sheerness.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

  13. #13
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    HMS Canada (1765)

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    HMS Captain, pictured, was from the same Canada class as HMS Canada.



    HMS Canada was the first of its class designed by William Batley. A 74-gun third-rate ship of the line, she was ordered on the first of December 1759. There would be three more of her class built but not until 1781. M/shipwright Israel Pownoll until the May of 1762 and then completed by Joseph Harris. She was launched on the 17th of September,1765 at Woolwich Dockyard.

    History
    GREAT BRITAIN
    Name: HMS Canada
    Ordered: 1 December 1759
    Builder: Woolwich Dockyard
    Launched: 17 September 1765
    Honours and
    awards:
    Fate: Broken up, 1834
    Notes: Prison ship from 1810
    General characteristics [1]
    Class and type: Canada-class ship of the line
    Tons burthen: 1605 (bm)
    Length: 170 ft (52 m) (gundeck)
    Beam: 46 ft 9 in (14.25 m)
    Depth of hold: 20 ft 6 in (6.25 m)
    Propulsion: Sails
    Sail plan: Full rigged ship
    Armament:
    • Gundeck: 28 × 32-pounder guns
    • Upper gundeck: 28 × 18-pounder guns
    • QD: 14 × 9-pounder guns
    • Fc: 4 × 9-pounder guns


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    HMS Canada
    was commissioned in the February of 1779 and fitted and coppered at Plymouth from the March to April of 1780. By the end of that year she was rated as a 76 gun ship with two extra 18 pounders fitted.

    On 2 May 1781, Canada engaged and captured the Spanish ship Santa Leocadia, of 34 guns.
    In 1782, Canada was under the command of William Cornwallis, when she took part in the Battle of St. Kitts. Later that year she participated in the Battle of the Saintes. These actions necessitated a major repair at Portsmouth between the March of 1783 and 1784.
    She was recommissioned in the July of 1790 under Captain Lord Hugh Conway for the Spanish Armament, and in 1793 she was commanded by Captain Charles Powell Hamilton under whom she took part in the Action of the 6th of November 1794 with Nielly's squadron, and by skillful ship handling managed to avoid capture.

    Under the command of Sir Erasmus Gower, in 1795 she joined Howe's Fleet. However from the June of that year she was captained by George Bowen, as the flagship of Rear Admiral Sir Roger Curtis, and then sailed for Jamaica.
    She was still In Jamaica during the start 1797 but now under Captain Thomas Twysden, who later returning her to Plymouth for repairs. By the November of that year she was ready for recommissioning under Commodore Sir John Borlase Warren, but in March of 1798n was grounded near the mouth of the Gironde whilst in pursuit of the 36 gun La Charente but was later successfully freed.
    On the 12th of October 1798 Canada was again in action with Bompart's squadron off Ireland. During the engagement on of her crew was mortally wounded.

    In May 1799, under Captain Michael de Courcy she formed a part of Cotton's squadron in the Med, and in operations off Quiberon in the June of 1800. From the April of1801 she was under Captain Joseph York and then went into Portsmouth for a refit.

    Napoleonic Wars.

    In the September of 1805 she was recommissioned under Captain John Harvey and sailed once more for Jamaica on the 28th of January 1806.

    In 1807, Canada was in the Caribbean in a squadron under the command of Rear-Admiral Alexander Cochrane. The squadron, which included HMS Prince George, HMS Northumberland, HMS Ramillies and HMS Cerberus, captured Telemaco, Carvalho and Master on 17 April 1807.

    Following the concern in Britain that neutral Denmark was entering an alliance with Napoleon, in December 1807 Canada sailed in Cochrane's squadron in the expedition to occupy the Danish West Indies. The expedition captured the Danish islands of St Thomas on 22 December and Santa Cruz on 25 December. The Danes did not resist and the invasion was bloodless.

    Fate.

    Returning home Canada was paid off in the January of 1808 and fitted as a prison ship at Chatham. In 1814 she was converted to a powder magazine for the Medway.

    Canada became a convict ship at Chatham from 1810, and was broken up there in 1834.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

  14. #14
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    HMS Captain (1787)


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    HMS Captain was a modified Canada Class74-gun
    third-rateship of the line ordered on the 14th of November,1782 and designed by William Batley. M/shipwright Robert Batson. She was launched on the 26th of November,1787 at Limehouse.




    History
    Great Britain
    Name:
    HMS Captain
    Ordered:
    14 November 1782
    Builder:
    Batson, Limehouse Yard
    Laid down:
    May 1784
    Launched:
    26 November 1787
    Honours and
    awards:
    Participated in:

    Fate:
    Burned and broken up, 1813
    General characteristics
    Class and type:
    Canada classthird rateship of the line
    Tons burthen:
    ​1638 6394 (bm)
    Length:
    170 ft (52 m) (gundeck)
    Beam:
    46 ft 9 in (14.25 m)
    Depth of hold:
    20 ft 6 in (6.25 m)
    Propulsion:
    Sails
    Sail plan:
    Full rigged ship
    Complement:
    550 officers and men


    Armament:
    • Lower gundeck: 28 × 32-pounder guns
    • Upper gundeck: 28 × 18-pounder guns
    • QD: 14 × 9-pounder guns
    • Fc: 4 × 9-pounder guns


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    Captain was fitted out at various venues from Deptford to Woolwich and finally commissioned at Plymouth on the 24th of September, 1790 under Captain Archibald Dickson for the Spanish Armament.
    She served during both the
    French revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.

    French Revolutionary Wars.

    In the January of 1793 she sailed for the med under Captain Samuel Reeve, and joined Hood's fleet. She was with part of the Mediterranean fleet which occupied
    Toulon at the invitation of the Royalists in 1793 before being driven out by Revolutionary troops in an action where Napoleon Bonaparte made his name. During this operation Captain was deployed in the Raid on Genoa. On the 17th of October she was present at the capture of the French 36 gun La Modeste. In 1795 under Captain Thomas Seacombe, and later that year under Captain John Samuel Smith.
    In June 1796, Admiral Sir
    John Jervis transferred Captain Horatio Nelson from HMS Agamemnon into Captain. Jervis appointed Nelson commodore of a squadron that was first deployed off Livorno during Napoleon's march through northern Italy.
    In the September of 1796,
    Gilbert Elliot, the British viceroy of the Anglo-Corsican Kingdom, decided that it was necessary to clear out Capraja, which belonged to the Genoese and which served as a base for privateers. He sent Nelson, in Captain, together with the transport Gorgon, Vanneau, the cutter Rose, and troops of the 51st Regiment of Foot to accomplish this task in September. On their way, Minerva joined them. The troops landed on the 18th of September and the island surrendered immediately. Later that month Nelson oversaw the British withdrawal from Corsica.
    In the February of 1797, Nelson had rejoined Jervis's fleet 25 miles west of Cape St. Vincent at the southwest tip of
    Portugal, just before it intercepted a Spanish fleet on the 14th of February. The Battle of Cape St Vincent made both Jervis's and Nelson's names. Jervis was made Earl St Vincent and Nelson was knighted for his initiative and daring.
    Nelson had realized that the leading Spanish ships were escaping and
    wore Captain to break out of the line of battle to attack the much larger Spanish ships. Captain exchanged fire with the Spanish flagship, Santísima Trinidad, which mounted 136 guns on four decks. Later Captain closely engaged the 80-gun San Nicolas, when the Spanish ship was disabled by a broadside from Excellent and ran into another ship, the San Josef of 112-guns. With Captain hardly maneuverable, Nelson ran his ship alongside San Nicolas, which he boarded. Nelson was preparing to order his men to board San Josef next when she signaled her intent to surrender. The boarding of San Nicolas, which resulted in the taking of the two larger ships was later immortalized as 'Nelson's Patent Bridge for Boarding First Rates.

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    HMS Captain capturing the San Nicolas and the San Josef at the Battle of Cape St Vincent, 14 February 1797

    Captain was the most severely damaged of the British ships as she was in the thick of the action for longer than any other ship. She returned to service following repairs and on the 6th of May,1799 sailed for the Mediterranean under Captain Sir Richard Strachan, where she joined Captain
    John Markham's squadron.
    After the
    Battle of Alexandria, the squadron under Contre-Admiral Jean-Baptiste Perrée, consisting of the 40-gun Le Junon, 36-gun Alceste, 32-gun La Courageuse, 18-gun La Salamine and the brig L'Alerte escaped to Genoa.
    On the 17 of June of that year, the French squadron, still under Perrée, was en route from
    Jaffa for Toulon when it encountered the British squadron under Markham in Centaur. In the ensuing Action of the 18th of June, 1799, the British captured the entire French squadron, with Captain capturing L'Alerte. Markham described L'Alerte as a brig of 14 guns and 120 men, under the command of Lieutenant Dumay.
    In the August of 1800, Captain joined Warren's squadron at Ferrol. On the 23rd of November of that year, Captain Sir
    Richard Strachan in Captain chased a French convoy in to the Morbihan where it sheltered under the protection of shore batteries and the 20-gun corvette Réolaise. Magicienne was able to force the corvette onto the shore at Port Navalo, though she got off again. The hired armed cutter Suworow then towed in four boats with Lieutenant Hennah of Captain and a cutting-out party of seamen and marines. The hired armed cutters Nile and Lurcher towed in four more boats from Magicienne. Although the cutting-out party landed under heavy fire of grape and musketry, it was able to set the corvette on fire; shortly thereafter she blew up. Only one British seaman, a crewman from Suworow, was killed. However, Suworow's sails and rigging were so badly cut up that Captain had to take her under tow. A French report of the action stated that Captain Duclos, seeing the approach of the British, ran Réolaise on shore and burnt her.
    Between the September of 1801 and the October of 1802 Captain was statione at Jamaica in the Caribbean under the command of Captain Charles Boyle, before returning to England for a refit at Plymouth.

    Napoleonic Wars.

    Recommissioned in the June of 1805 under Captain George Stephens, she was again paid off in the March of 1806 for yet another refit at Portsmouth. After recommissioning in the May of 1806 she served under Captain George Cockburn at the blockade of Brest.
    In 1807 it had been one of the escorts for the expedition leaving Falmouth that would eventually attack Buenos Aires. Turned back north once the expedition reached the Cape Verde Islands.
    In the July of that year Captain Isaac Wooley took command and proceeded in Captain on the Copenhagen expedition during August, then on to the occupation of Madeira on the 26th of December. In 1808 she was in the Leeward Islands under Captain Edward Rushworth and by the end of that year Captain James Wood. Captain shared with
    Amaranthe, Pompee, and Morne Fortunee in the prize money pool of £772 3s 3d for the capture of Frederick on the 30th of December. This money was not paid out until the June of 1829.
    Captain took part in the capture of
    Martinique in the February of 1809. In the April of that year, a strong French squadron arrived at the Îles des Saintes, south of Guadeloupe. There they were blockaded until the 14th, when a British force under Major-General Frederick Maitland invaded and captured the islands. Captain was among the naval vessels that shared in the proceeds of the capture of the islands.
    In July she returned to England under Captain Christopher Nesham, and was paid off in December.

    Fate.

    Fitted as a receiving ship at Plymouth where her diagonal braces were removed in the December of that same year of 1807.
    Captain was put into harbour service. On 22 March 1813, she was accidentally burned in the
    Hamoaze, off Plymouth. At the time, she was undergoing conversion to a sheer hulk. When it was clear that the fire, which had begun in the forecastle, had taken hold, her securing lines were cut and she was towed a safe distance away from the other vessels so that she could burn herself out. Even so, orders were given that she be sunk. Ships' launches with carronades then commenced a one-hour bombardment. She finally foundered after having burned down to the waterline. Two men died in the accident. The wreck was raised in July and broken up.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    HMS Carnatic (1783)

    HMS Carnatic ordered on the 14th of July, 1779 was a 74-gun third rate ship of the line . She was the first of her class modeled on the lines of the captured French ship Courageux. M/shipwrights Henry Adams and William Barnard. Carnatic was launched on the 21st of January, 1783 at Deptford Wharf. The British East India Company paid for her construction and presented her to the Royal Navy.

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    HMS Carnatic off Plymouth, 18 August 1789

    History
    GREAT BRITAIN
    Name: HMS Carnatic
    Ordered: 14 July 1779
    Builder: Dudman, Deptford Wharf
    Laid down: March 1780
    Launched: 21 January 1783
    Renamed: HMS Captain, 1815
    Fate: Broken up, 1825
    General characteristics
    Class and type: Carnatic-class ship of the line
    Tons burthen: 1719​3094 (bm)
    Length: 172 ft 4 12 in (52.5 m) (gundeck); 1,140 ft 3 12 in (347.6 m) (keel)
    Beam: 48 ft 0 in (14.6 m)
    Depth of hold: 20 ft 9 12 in (6.337 m)
    Propulsion: Sails
    Sail plan: Full rigged ship
    Armament:
    • Gundeck: 28 × 32-pounder guns
    • Upper gundeck: 28 × 18-pounder guns
    • QD: 14 × 9-pounder guns
    • Fc: 4 × 9-pounder guns






    Carnatic
    was commissioned in the March of 1783 under Captain Anthony Malloy as a guard ship at Chatham until 1785. and then in the same role at Plymouth. From the April of 1786 she was under Captain Peregrine Bertie, and fitted for channel service in 1789 under Captain John Ford for the Spanish armament.

    From the August of 1890 she served as the Flagship of Rear Admiral John Jervis. She then had another period as guardship at Plymouth until 1797 when she was recommissioned under Captain Henry Jenkins and served as the Flagship to Rear Admiral Charles Pole.

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    HMS Carnatic's Figurehead.

    In the May of 1796 she sailed for the Leeward Islands and in 1798, whilst stationed at Jamaica, was commanded by Captain George Bowen and then in 1799 Captain John Loring.

    By 1802 she was under the command of Captain Charles Penrose as Flagship to Rear Admiral Robert Montague.

    Fitted as a temporary receiving ship in 1805 at Plymouth she remained in ordinary there from1812 until 1815.

    On the17th of May, 1815, the Admiralty renamed her HMS Captain.

    Captain was broken up on the 30th of September, 1825.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

  16. #16
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    HMS Colossus (1787)

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    HMS Colossus was a 74-gun Carnatic Class third-rateship of the line ordered on the 13th of December 1781. She was built by M/ shipwright William Cleverley, and was launched at Gravesend on the 4th of April, 1787.




    History
    Great Britain
    Name: HMS Colossus
    Ordered: 13 December 1781
    Builder: Clevely, Gravesend
    Laid down: October 1782
    Launched: 4 April 1787
    Fate: Wrecked, 10 December 1798
    Notes: ·Participated in:
    ·Battle of Groix
    ·Battle of Cape St Vincent
    General characteristics
    Class and type: Carnatic-classship of the line
    Tons burthen: 1703 bm
    Length: 172 ft 3 in (52.50 m) (gundeck)
    Beam: 47 ft 9 in (14.55 m)
    Depth of hold: 20 ft 9 12 in (6.3 m)
    Propulsion: Sails
    Sail plan: Full rigged ship
    Armament: ·74 guns:
    ·Gundeck: 28 × 32 pdrs
    ·Upper gundeck: 28 × 18 pdrs
    ·Quarterdeck: 14 × 9 pdrs

    ·Forecastle: 4 × 9 pdrs



    Early history.

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    Colossus was commissioned in the June of 1787 under Captain Hugh Christian, and acted as a guardship at Portsmouth under Captain Henry Harvey until the September of 1791.



    Refitted at Portsmouth, she was recommissioned in the February of 1793 under Captain Charles Pole she sailed for the Med in the April of that year.On the 6th of June, in the Bay of Biscay, she captured Vanneau, a tiny vessel with an armament of just six guns on the 6th of June, which the Royal Navy took into service. Then only a month later accompanied by HMS Leviathan she captured the Privateer Le Vrai Patriot. Still in the same year, Colossus was part of a large fleet of 51 warships of numerous types, including a Spanish squadron, but commanded overall by Vice Admiral Lord Samuel Hood.




    The Siege of Toulon.




    The Fleet arrived off Toulon on the 26th of August, 1793, with Lord Hood aboard HMS Victory. The objective was to keep the French Fleet in check. Berthed In Toulon's port were 58 French warships, and Lord Hood was determined not to allow such a potent and dangerous fleet to be taken over by French revolutionary forces. The Bourbons, the Royalists of France, had thus far managed to maintain control of Toulon, a vital Mediterranean port. Upon the arrival of the British Fleet, the Bourbons duly surrendered the town and ships to Hood.



    Sailors and Royal Marines began to land at Toulon from the ships of the Fleet, with the objective of taking possession of the key forts, which they succeeded in doing. The French Republican forces were quickly mobilized, and began a siege of Toulon on the 7th of September. By the 15th, the British and Spanish were forced to withdraw as the heights overlooking the anchorage had been taken by the Republicans and a battery of siege guns established there. In the retreat the British took with them over15,000 Royalists, as well as destroying the dockyards, and also a large number of the French warships. The Royal Navy lost 10 ships to artillery fire after the French capture of the heights. Colossus then returned to Portsmouth for a refit which took until the April of 1794.

    June saw her joining Montague's squadron, and taking part in the
    Battle of Groix on the 23rd of June,1795.Colossus was once again embroiled in a large fleet action. 25 ships commanded by Admiral Lord Bridport on his flagship, Royal George, fought a French fleet of 23 warships under the command of Rear-Admiral Villaret-Joyeuse. The battle was immense and chaotic, and raged across a vast area, yet it came to an indecisive end, when Bridport ordered his Fleet to cease fighting at 7.15am, just four hours after the initial fighting had started. This decision allowed nine important French warships to escape. Colossus received damage, suffering three killed and thirty wounded. In total, British losses were 31 killed and 113 wounded. French losses are not known; it is estimated over 670 French sailors were killed or wounded, during skirmishes that resulted in the capture of three French warships.

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    Colossus at the Battle of Groix.


    Though Colossus was involved in much bitter fighting, her Scots captain, John Monkton, ordered his kilt-wearing piper to proceed to the maintop mast staysail netting and play the pipes throughout the battle, no doubt to the bemusement of the French sailors who witnessed it.



    Colossusnow returned to Plymouth to make repairs which took until the July of 1796 when she came under the command of Captain Richard Grindall until the end of that year.

    Battle of Cape St. Vincent.

    In the February of 1797, Colossus, now commanded by Captain George Murray, as part of Parker's reinforcements to Admiral John Jervis, joined his fleet and was involved in yet another large-scale clash of fleets in the Battle of Cape St. Vincent on the 14th of February. She was part of a 21-ship strong fleet (including 7 smaller craft) under the command of Jervis in his flagship HMS Victory, against a Spanish Fleet of 27 ships commanded by Lieutenant-General Don José de Córdoba y Ramos. Colossus sustained serious damage, her sails being virtually shot away. It looked inevitable that she would be raked by Spanish warships, until Orion closed up on Colossus and covered her.

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    The battle was a major victory for the Royal Navy. Despite being outnumbered, it captured four Spanish ships of the Line and crippled seven more, including the largest warship afloat at that time - the Santísima Trinidad. The British lost approximately 300 killed or wounded; the Spanish lost 1,092 killed or wounded, and 2,300 taken as prisoners.



    Other action.

    As the fleet repaired at Naples Colossus was immediately sent "on a cruise off Malta". She then went to Gibraltar before returning to the now repaired fleet in Naples. In the summer, William Bolton (later Captain) was promoted to Lieutenant on the Colossus, and the ship on the obverse of the 1797 medal featuring William Bolton may represent Colossus. Colossus was not cannibalized; Captain Murray did, however, hand over to Nelson three of his guns and one bower anchor. This was done as Colossus had been ordered home to England, whereas the Vanguard was staying within the war zone. Loaded with Greek vases and wounded men from the battle of the Nile, Colossus set off for home. She stopped at Algiers and at Lisbon on the way. At Lisbon she joined a larger convoy that was "bound for Ireland and other northern ports". The convoy dispersed in the English Channel as planned.

    Shipwreck.

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    Approximate position of the wreck.



    Amidst the bad winter weather Colossus sighted the Isles of Scilly first and came to anchor in St Mary's Roads on 7 December. For three days she intended to ride out the storm, only for it to increase. On the night of 10 December an anchor cable parted and the ship ran aground on a submerged ledge of rock off Samson Island. Only one life was lost, that of Quartermaster Richard King who drowned when he fell overboard while trying to sound the lead. Boats were immediately put out from the island, and all of the other crew were transported to safety by the morning. On 11 December the ship settled on her side, the starboard beam ends touching the waves. Attempts to re-board her were thwarted by continued high seas.



    On 15 December Colossus' mainmast and bowsprit broke away and it became clear she could no longer be re-floated. A naval brig, Fearless, was able to put alongside the shipwrecked vessel on 29 December and bring away a quantity of stores and the body of Admiral Molyneux Shuldam which had been transported aboard Colossus for reburial in England. No further salvage proved possible and the vessel sank entirely in early January 1799.

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    For more information on the wreck see here:-
    http://scillydivers.blogspot.com/p/wreck-of-hms-colossus.html
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

  17. #17
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    HMS Conqueror (1773)

    HMS Conqueror was a 74-gun Royal Oak class, third rateship of the line, designed by Sir John Williams and ordered on the 12th of October,1768. M/shipwright Israel Pownoll until the February of 1775, and completed by John Henslow. She was launched on the10th of October, 1773 at Plymouth.



    History
    Great Britain
    Name:
    HMS Conqueror
    Ordered:
    12 October 1768
    Builder:
    Plymouth Dockyard
    Laid down:
    October 1769
    Launched:
    10 October 1773
    Fate:
    Broken up, 1794
    General characteristics
    Class and type:
    Royal Oak-classship of the line
    Tons burthen:
    1606
    Length:
    168 ft 6 in (51.36 m) (gundeck)
    Beam:
    46 ft 9 in (14.25 m)
    Depth of hold:
    20 ft (6.1 m)
    Propulsion:
    Sails
    Sail plan:
    Full rigged ship
    Armament:
    • 74 guns:
    • Gundeck: 28 × 32 pdrs
    • Upper gundeck: 28 × 18 pdrs
    • Quarterdeck: 14 × 9 pdrs
    • Forecastle: 4 × 9 pdrs


    She was commissioned under Captain Thomas Graves
    coppered and fitted at Plymouth but paid off after wartime service in the March of 1781.

    Recommissioned in the may of that year under Captain George Balfour who commanded her at the
    Battle of the Saintes, in 1782.

    She was fitted in ordinary at Plymouth in the November of 1783.Moved to Chatham in 1787andwas broken up there in the November of 1794.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

  18. #18
    Admiral of the Blue.
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    French ship Courageux (1753)

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    Courageux was a 74-gun
    ship of the line of the French Navy, built at Brest from 1751 and launched in 1753.



    History
    France
    Name:
    Courageux
    Builder:
    Brest
    Launched:
    11 October 1753
    Captured:
    13 August 1761, by Royal Navy
    Great Britain
    Name:
    Courageux
    Acquired:
    13 August 1761
    Fate:
    Wrecked off Gibraltar, 18 December 1796
    General characteristics
    Class and type:
    74-gun third-rateship of the line
    Tons burthen:
    1,721​3094 bm
    Length:
    172 feet 3 inches (52.5 m) (gundeck)
    Beam:
    48 ft 34 in (14.6 m)
    Depth of hold:
    20 ft 10 12 in (6.4 m)
    Sail plan:
    Full-rigged ship
    Armament:
    • French Navy: 74 guns
    • Gundeck: 28 × 36-pounders
    • Upper gundeck: 30 × 18-pounders
    • Quarterdeck: 16 × 8-pounders
    • Royal Navy: 74 guns
    • Gundeck: 28 × 32-pounders
    • Upper gundeck: 28 × 18-pounders
    • Quarterdeck: 18 × 9-pounders

    FRENCH SERVICE.

    Battle of Cape Finisterre (1761)

    In the late evening of 13 August 1761, Courageux was off
    Vigo in the company of the frigates Malicieuse and Hermione, when the 74-gun British ship HMS Bellona and the frigate Brilliant were seen. Mistaking them for ships of the line, Courageux and her compatriots sought escape into the darkness. The moon was bright, however, and the British were able to pursue.

    The next morning, Courageux's captain decided that Bellona was a 50-gun ship and, believing he had the superior force, ordered the frigates to attack Brilliant while he turned to close with Bellona. When the ships were within musket-shot, Courageux opened fire and, within nine minutes, had brought down Bellona's mizzen-mast and cut her rigging so badly that the ship became difficult to handle. Bellona's captain, seeing the danger, ordered a boarding party, but Courageux sheered off. With difficulty, the British ship was able to wear and, coming up on Courageux's starboard quarter, unleashed a series of devastating broadsides. Courageux was greatly damaged and, with about 200 men killed and a further 100 wounded, struck her colours.


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    Bellona vs Courageux.

    BRITISH SERVICE.

    Courageux was purchased by the
    Admiralty on the 2nd of February of the following year, and taken into the Royal Navy as the third-rate HMS Courageux. In the July of that year a large repair was begun at Portsmouth, which took until the middle of the June of1764 to complete. A further substantial repair was made between the January of 1772 and the July of1773, In the July of 1776, Courageux was commissioned under Captain Samuel Hood, and, in November, and she was fitted out as a guardship at Portsmouth.

    In 1778 she joined the
    Channel Fleet, and she was later part of the squadron commanded by CommodoreCharles Fielding that controversially captured a Dutch convoy on the 31st of December, 1779, in what became known as the Affair of Fielding and Bylandt.
    Courageux was in the
    Western Approaches on 12 March 1780, in the company of another seventy-four, HMS Alexander, when a large frigate was seen to the south-east. Alexander set off in pursuit and after eighteen hours was close enough to engage with her chase guns. After two hours more, as she was overhauling her quarry, Alexander's fore-top mast snapped. Courageux had by this time caught up and continued the chase, eventually forcing the French frigate's surrender. The prize was the Monsieur, a privateer from Granville of 40 guns and a crew of 362.

    In 1781, Courageux was under the command of
    Lord Mulgrave, and on 4 January, she and HMS Valiant recaptured Minerva, approximately 5 miles west of Ushant. Minerve had sailed in company from Brest the previous day for a fortnight's cruise around the Scilly Isles. Courageux exchanged fire at close range for more than an hour, during which time all of Minerve's masts were put out of action and extensive damage done to her hull, while fifty of her crew were killed and a further twenty-three injured. Courageux's mizzen, foremast and bowsprit were damaged, and ten of her crew were killed and seven wounded. Valiant, in the meantime, had gone off in pursuit of another ship. Courageux towed her prize to Spithead, arriving on the morning of 8 January



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    A 1779 depiction of British-occupied Gibraltar, under siege from Spanish forces.

    In April, Courageux was part of the convoy under
    George Darby sent to relieve the Great Siege of Gibraltar, maintained by French and Spanish forces since June 1779. Courageux shared in the prize money for the French brigs Duc de Chartres and Trois Amis and the Spanish frigate Santa Leucadia captured during the cruise.

    A refit was carried out in the April of1782. Then, in the June of 1787 a greater repair was required, taking until the July of 1789. Following a dispute with Spain over territorial rights along the
    Nootka Sound, Courageux was commissioned in the April of 1790 under George Countess for the Spanish Armament. The crisis was largely resolved through a series of agreements signed between the October of 1790 and the January of 1794. In the February of 1791, Courageux was under the command of Captain Alan Gardner when she was recommissioned for the Russian Armament. Again, the matter was settled before she was called into action, and she paid off in September of that year.

    Toulon and Corsica.

    France declared war on Britain and the Dutch Republic in the February of 1793, and Courageux, under Captain
    William Waldegrave, was dispatched with other British ships to blockade the French fleet in Toulon. By the middle of August, this British force, under Admiral Hood, in the 100-gun First Rate ship HMS Victory, had expanded into twenty-one ships of the line. On the 23rd of August, a deputation of French royalists came aboard the Victory to discuss the conditional surrender of the town, and on the 27th of August 1500 troops were landed to evict the republicans occupying the forts guarding the port. The landings were covered by Courageux, Meleager, Tartar, Egmont and Robust. Once the forts were secured, the remainder of Hood's fleet, accompanied by seventeen Spanish ships of the line, which had just arrived, sailed into the harbour.

    In September 1793, during the occupation, Courageux, captained temporarily by Captain John Matthews, joined a squadron under
    Robert Linzee, which was sent to Corsica to support an insurrection there. General Pasquale Paoli, the leader of the insurgent party, had assured Hood that a small show of strength was all that was needed to force the island's surrender. This turned out not to be the case, however, and Linzee's appeals to the French garrisons there were rejected. His force, of three ships of the line and two frigates, was too small to blockade the island, so an attack on San Fiorenzo was decided upon.

    The two frigates,
    Lowestoffe and Nemesis, were charged with destroying a Martello tower at Forneilli, two miles from the town, which guarded the only secure anchorage in the bay. After taking a few salvos from the ships, the French garrison deserted, and the British landed men to secure the fort. Linzee's squadron entered the bay but was prevented from engaging the batteries of San Fiorenzo by contrary winds. During the night, HMS Ardent was warped into a position where, at 03:30 on the1st of October, she was able to attack the batteries and cover the approach of the other British ships. Half an hour later, HMS Alcide tried to take up a station nearby but was blown towards some rocks by a sudden change of wind and had to be towed clear. Courageux in the meantime covered Alcide's stern by coming between it and the gunfire from a redoubt on the shore. Alcide eventually got into a position where she could join in the action, and the three ships bombarded the redoubt until 08:15 when, there being little sign of damage, Linzee gave the order to withdraw. Courageux bore the brunt of the action, having been exposed to a raking fire from the town, and caught on fire four times after being hit by heated shot.

    During the same month, French troops
    laid siege to the city of Toulon, and in the December, the allied force within was driven out. When the order to withdraw was given, Courageux was being repaired and was without a rudder, but she was able to warp out of the harbour and assist in the evacuation of allied troops from the waterfront. A replacement rudder was brought out, suspended between two ship's boats, and fitted later.

    Battle of Genoa.

    Courageux, now commanded by Captain Augustus Montgomery, was one of thirteen ships of the line, which, together with seven frigates, two sloops and a cutter, were anchored in the roads of
    Livorno on the 8th of March 1795. The following day, a British scout, the 24-gun sloop Moselle, brought news that a French fleet of fifteen ships of the line, six frigates and two brigs, had been seen off the islands of Sainte-Marguerite. Vice-Admiral William Hotham immediately set off in pursuit, and on the10th of March the advanced British frigates spotted the French fleet at some distance, making its way back to Toulon against the wind. Two days later, on the night of the 12th of March, a storm developed which badly damaged two French ships of the line. These ships were escorted to Gourjean Bay by a pair of French frigates, thus leaving the opposing fleets of roughly equal in strength and numbers.

    The next morning, Hotham attempted to arrange his ships into a
    Battle line, but seeing no response from the French fleet, changed his orders to give general chase. At 08:00 the 80-gun Ça Ira at the rear collided with Victoire, and her fore and main topmasts went by the board. The leading British ship, the 36-gun frigate HMS Inconstant under Captain Thomas Fremantle, reached the damaged Ça Ira within the hour and opened up such a furious fire at close range that she caused even further devastation. Seeing the danger, the French frigate Vestale fired upon Inconstant from long range before taking the limping Ça Ira in tow. Shortly after this, HMS Agamemnon under Captain Horatio Nelson joined in the action, until several of the French ships bearing down upon him forced her to drop back into proper station in the line.

    Throughout the day and the following night, the British van sporadically engaged the French rearguard, with Ça Ira dropping further behind the main body of the French force. In order to better protect the damaged ship, the French admiral,
    Pierre Martin, ordered the ship of the line Censeur to replace Vestale as the towing ship. By morning the fleets were 21 nautical miles (39 km) south-west of Genoa, with the British rapidly gaining ground. Ça Ira and Censeur had fallen even further behind, and Hotham sent his two fastest ships after them. Captain and Bedford which unfortunately did not arrive simultaneously and thus both were repulsed, although further damage had been inflicted on the French stragglers during the process. Martin then ordered his line to wear in succession and get between the British fleet and the badly damaged Ça Ira and Censeur, which in the meantime had come under a new threat from the recently arrived Courageux and HMS Illustrious. A sudden lull in wind made manoeuvres more difficult, and the leading French ship, Duquesne under Captain Zacharie Allemand, found itself sailing down the opposite side of the British vanguard.

    At 08:00, Duquesne was in a position to engage Illustrious and Courageux, which, in their efforts to reach Ça Ira and Censeur, were now far ahead and to leeward of their own line. Two other French ships, Victoire and
    Tonnant, now joined in the action, and, for an hour, the French and British vanguards exchanged heavy fire. Both British ships were badly mauled: Illustrious had drifted out of the battle, having lost her main and mizzen masts over the side, while Courageux also had two masts shot away and her hull much holed by the French fire. The Duquesne, Victoire, and Tonnant then exchanged passing broadsides with the British ships coming up, before turning away and leaving Ça Ira and Censeur to their fate. Hotham, considering the condition of the ships in his van, and content with his prizes, chose not pursue the French any further.

    Action off Hyeres.

    The fleet was re-victualling in
    San Fiorenzo bay on the 8th of July, 1795, when a small squadron under the command of Commodore Horatio Nelson approached, pursued by the French Fleet from Toulon. The British fleet was not able to put to sea immediately, due to contrary winds, but was spotted by the French, who abandoned their chase. Hotham finished refitting and supplying his ships, and finally managed to set off in persuit of his quarry at 21:00, almost twelve hours later. On the night of the 12th of July, the British ships were struck by a viscious storm, and they were still carrying out repairs the following morning when the French fleet was sighted again. At 03:45 Hotham gave the order to make all possible sail in pursuit of their enemy, which by then was 5 nautical miles away from them, bearing towards Fréjus.

    By 08:00, the French had formed a line of battle, but the British ships were strung out over 8 nautical miles in total. The leading British ships,
    Victory, Culloden, and Cumberland, at 34 of a mile were the only ships within range and opened fire. After six hours, as more ships arrived on the scene, one of the rearmost French ships, Alcide struck her colours.However, before the British could take possession of her, she caught fire and exploded. Courageux, under the command of Benjamin Hallowell, and some wayto the rear, was unable to get into the action before Hotham, believing the fleet to be running out of sea room, hoisted the signal to disengage.

    Fate.

    In the December of 1796, Courageux was with
    St Vincent's fleet, anchored in the bay of Gibraltar, when a great storm tore her from her mooring and drove her onto the rocks. Sources differ as to which day this occurred and the number of lives lost. William James records that on 10 December a French squadron under Admiral Villeneuve left the Mediterranean, but the British were unable to pursue due to a strong lee-shore wind. The weather took a turn for the worse, and that night several ships cut or had their cables snapped, including HMS Culloden and HMS Gibraltar.

    When Courageux parted from her anchor, Captain Benjamin Hallowell was ashore at Gibraltar, serving on a court martial, and Lieutenant John Burrows was in command. The ship drifted across the bay and almost under the guns of the Spanish batteries, after which she was blown towards the Barbary coast under close-reefed topsails; Burrows was reluctant to run through the Straits for fear of meeting with Villeneuve's ships. Towards evening, the wind and rain increased to hurricane force, and soon after 20:00, the crew, who had been exhausted from trying to sail the ship out of trouble, were sent to dinner; the officers also retired below, except for a lieutenant of the watch. At 21:00, when land was sighted, there were too few men available to prevent the Courageux hitting the
    rocks at the foot of Mons Abyla on the African coast. She turned broadside on to the wind , losing her masts over the side, and water entered rapidly as waves and winds lashed her hull. Of the 593 officers and men who were on board, only 129 escaped with their lives: five by means of the ship's launch, and the remainder by moving along the fallen mainmast to the shore.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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