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    Default The Battle of the Basque Roads

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    Also known as the Battle of Aix Roads (French: Bataille de l'île d'Aix, also Affaire des brûlots, rarely Bataille de la rade des Basques), was a major naval battle of the Napoleonic Wars, fought in the narrow Basque Roads at the mouth of the Charente River on the Biscay coast of France. The battle, which lasted from 11–24 April 1809, was unusual in that it pitted a hastily-assembled squadron of small and unorthodox British Royal Navy warships against the main strength of the French Atlantic Fleet, the circumstances dictated by the cramped, shallow coastal waters in which the battle was fought. The battle is also notorious for its controversial political aftermath in both Britain and France.

    In February 1809 the French Atlantic Fleet, blockaded in Brest on the Breton coast by the British Channel Fleet, attempted to break out into the Atlantic and reinforce the garrison of Martinique. Sighted and chased by British blockade squadrons, the French were unable to escape the Bay of Biscay and eventually anchored in the Basque Roads, near the naval base of Rochefort. There they were kept under observation during March by the British fleet under the dour Admiral Lord Gambier. The Admiralty, desiring an attack on the French fleet, ordered Lord Cochrane, an outspoken and popular junior captain, to lead an attack, over the objections of a number of senior officers. Cochrane organised an inshore squadron of fireships and bomb vessels, including a converted frigate, and personally led this force into Basque Roads on the evening of 11 April.


    Cochrane's plan.


    As the 18 fireships prepared in Britain by Mulgrave had not yet departed by the time of Cochrane's arrival with the fleet, the captain responded by converting his own over the following week. A number of chasse-marées carrying tar and resin perfect for this role had been captured by the blockade, and Cochrane requisitioned eight military transport ships from the fleet reserve for conversion using these materials. The frigate-storeship HMS Mediator was taken over to be the centrepiece of the attack force. These vessels were laden with explosives and combustible materials such as rum-soaked hay, and crewed by volunteers from the fleet.] On three of the vessels Cochrane had loaded 1,500 barrels of gunpowder, topped by hundreds of artillery shells and thousands of grenades to create an explosion ship, a floating bomb of his own design intended to detonate right in the middle of the French line. During this process an attack by French boats on the fireships was driven off, with two British sailors killed and one wounded, and on 5 April Cochrane reconnoitered the approaches to Aix Roads, firing shots at the forts and fleet to gauge their responses. He subsequently wrote to Mulgrave suggesting that with an expeditionary force of 20,000 he could seize the defences overlooking the anchorage, sink blockships in the channel and thereby permanently deprive the French of one of their most important naval bases, although his letter was ignored.

    On 6 April the bomb vessel HMS Aetna, equipped with a heavy mortar, arrived with William Congreve, inventor of a rocket artillery system which was to be used in the attack. It was followed by the first convoy of 12 fireships on 10 April, taking Cochrane's total to 24 fireships and explosion vessels to expend in his attack. With these ships was a transport carrying thousands of Congreve rockets, which were strapped to the masts and yards of the fireships to fire in all directions as the ships burned. Due to Gambier's failure to scout the channel, Cochrane was apparently unaware of the existence of the boom, although historian James Henderson suggests he knew of it but failed to inform Gambier lest the cautious admiral abandon the entire operation. Cochrane was intending that his force, led by the heavy Mediator and the explosion vessels, would enter the anchorage during the night and sow confusion among the French fleet. It was hoped that in the chaos some of the French ships might be destroyed by fire and others driven on shore where a concerted attack by the British fleet would destroy or capture the remainder. Allemand could see the fireships under preparation in Basque Roads, and increased his defences by stationing 73 small boats along the boom to tow fireships onto the mud flats and away from the French fleet. He also ordered all the ships of the line to remove their sails and topmasts. This rendered them largely immobile but considerably less flammable. The frigates retained their rigging as they would be required to move in the event of a major attack.


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    His preparations complete, Cochrane ordered the attack for the evening of 11 April, although Gambier was reluctant to allow his sailors to support Cochrane in the operation, saying "if you choose to rush to self-destruction that is your own affair . . . but it is my duty to take care of the lives of others, and I will not place the crews of the fireships in palpable danger". Cochrane was furious and after a bitter argument Gambier relented and gave permission for the attack to go ahead. He stationed Imperieuse near the Boyart Shoal to the north of the boom, approximately 2.5 nautical miles (4.6 km) from the French fleet, supported by frigates HMS Aigle, HMS Unicorn and HMS Pallas. This force would collect the crews of the fireships as they abandoned their blazing charges and rowed back towards the British line, and sloops HMS Redpole and HMS Lyra were equipped as light ships to guide the fireships into the channel. With these ships were the schooner HMS Whiting and cutters Nimrud and King George, all converted into floating rocket batteries. Aetna and two brigs anchored north of the forts on Île-d'Aix, while frigate Emerald and five smaller warships were to launch a diversionary attack to the east of the island. Gambier, with the main body of the fleet, moved closer to the entrance to Aix Roads, eventually anchoring 9 nautical miles (17 km) distant; it has been suggested by one historian that he may have done so in order that he could retreat out to sea easily should the French fleet attempt to attack him in the aftermath of a failed fireship assault.

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    The attack caused little direct damage, but in the narrow waters of the channel the fireships panicked the sailors of the French fleet and most of their ships grounded and were left immobile. Cochrane expected Gambier to follow his attack with the main fleet, which could then destroy the vulnerable French force, but Gambier refused.

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    Cochrane continued the battle over the next several days, successfully destroying several French ships, but with little support from Gambier. This allowed most of the French fleet to refloat and retreat up the Charente to safety. Gambier recalled Cochrane on 14 April and sent him back to Britain, withdrawing most of the inshore squadron at the same time, although scattered fighting continued until 24 April. The increasingly marginalised French fleet was badly damaged and trapped in its home ports; several captains were court-martialed for cowardice and one was shot.
    The battle was undoubtedly a victory for the British; three French ships of the line, a fourth-rate and a frigate were destroyed and much of the remainder of the Brest fleet badly damaged and requiring extensive repairs; Océan and Foudroyant were in a particularly poor state. French casualties in the engagement are not known with certainty, but are estimated at 150–200, while British losses were only 13 killed and 30 wounded. Allemand later wrote that most significant damage resulting from the battle was to the morale of the French fleet; he wrote that "the greater part are disheartened; every day I hear them lamenting their situation, and speaking in praise of their enemy." Another French commentator told a British officer that the French sailors "had now no security from the English in their harbours, and they expected we should next go into Brest and take out their fleet". No British ships suffered more than minor damage in the two weeks of combat, and the fleet could return to its blockade with the knowledge that the Brest fleet was neutralised for some time to come and confined to Rochefort, although a powerful squadron was still under construction at Rochefort, where the defences had been swiftly repaired. This was the last time during the Napoleonic Wars that a significant French fleet was able to put to sea from the Atlantic ports; historian Richard Woodman describes it as the "biggest scare from a break-out French fleet in the post-Trafalgar period." Without naval support, the French colonies in the Caribbean were isolated, blockaded, invaded and captured shortly afterwards
    In Britain the battle was celebrated as a victory, but many in the Navy were dissatisfied with Gambier's behaviour and Cochrane used his position as a Member of Parliament to publicly protest Gambier's leadership. Incensed, Gambier requested a court-martial to disprove Cochrane's accusations and the admiral's political allies ensured that the jury was composed of his supporters. After bitter and argumentative proceedings Gambier was exonerated of any culpability for failings during the battle. Cochrane's naval career was ruined, although the irrepressible officer remained a prominent figure in Britain for decades to come. Historians have almost unanimously condemned Gambier for his failure to support Cochrane; even Napoleon opined that he was an "imbécile".
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    British fleet.


    Inshore Squadron.


    Inshore squadron
    Ship
    Rate
    Guns
    Commander
    Casualties
    Notes
    Killed
    Wounded
    Total
    HMS Indefatigable
    44
    Captain John Tremayne Rodd
    0
    0
    0
    Engaged on 12 April. Withdrawn on 13 April.
    HMS Imperieuse
    38
    Captain Lord Cochrane
    3
    11
    14
    Heavily engaged on 12-14 April. Withdrawn on 14 April.
    HMS Aigle
    36
    Captain George Wolfe
    0
    0
    0
    Engaged on 11-14 April. Remained until 24 April.
    HMS Emerald
    36
    Captain Frederick Lewis Maitland
    0
    0
    0
    Engaged on 11-12 April.
    HMS Unicorn
    32
    Captain Lucius Hardyman
    0
    0
    0
    Engaged on 11-12 April.
    HMS Pallas
    32
    Captain George Seymour
    0
    0
    0
    Engaged on 11-13 April.
    HMS Mediator 44 Captain James Wooldridge
    1
    4
    5
    Deliberately destroyed in the attack of 11 April.
    HMS Beagle
    18
    Captain Francis Newcombe
    0
    0
    0
    Heavily engaged 12-24 April.
    HMS Doterel
    18
    Captain Anthony Abdy
    0
    0
    0
    Engaged 12-24 April.
    HMS Foxhound
    18
    Captain Pitt Barnaby Greene
    0
    0
    0
    Engaged 12-24 April.
    HMS Insolent
    14
    Lieutenant John Row Morris
    0
    0
    0
    Engaged 12-24 April.
    HMS Encounter
    12
    Lieutenant James Hugh Talbot
    0
    0
    0
    Engaged 12-24 April.
    HMS Conflict
    12
    Lieutenant Joseph B. Batt
    0
    0
    0
    Engaged 12-24 April.
    HMS Contest
    12
    Lieutenant John Gregory
    0
    0
    0
    Engaged 12-24 April.
    HMS Fervant
    12
    Lieutenant John Edward Hare
    0
    0
    0
    Engaged 12-24 April.
    HMS Growler
    12
    Lieutenant Richard Crossman
    0
    0
    0
    Engaged 12-24 April.
    HMS Lyra
    10
    Captain William Bevians
    0
    0
    0
    Engaged 12-24 April.
    HMS Redpole
    10
    Captain John Joyce
    0
    0
    0
    Engaged 12-24 April.
    HMS Thunderer 8 Captain James Caulfield
    0
    0
    0
    Engaged 20 - 24 April.
    HMS Aetna 8 Captain William Godfrey
    0
    0
    0
    Heavily engaged 11 - 24 April.
    HMS Whiting 4 Liutenant Henry
    Wildey
    0
    0
    0
    Engaged 12-24 April.
    Nimrod Cutter Master's Mate Edward
    Tapley
    0
    0
    0
    Engaged 12-24 April.
    King George Cutter Master's Mate Thomas Mercer
    0
    0
    0
    Engaged 12-24 April.
    Total casualties: 4 killed, 15 wounded
    .
    Gambier's fleet.


    Admiral Lord Gambier's Fleet
    Ship
    Rate
    Guns
    Commander
    Casualties
    Notes
    Killed
    Wounded
    Total
    HMS Caledonia
    120
    Admiral Lord Gambier
    Captain Sir Harry Neale
    Captain William Bedford
    0
    0
    0
    Did not participate in the battle.
    HMS Caesar
    80
    Rear-Admiral Robert Stopford
    Captain Charles Richardson
    4
    0
    4
    Casualties incurred in a ship's boat during night attack on 11 April. Ship entered anchorage late on 12 April, withdrew without seeing action.
    HMS Gibraltar
    80
    Captain Henry Lidgbird Ball
    0
    1
    1
    Casualty incurred while serving on fireship, 11 April.
    HMS Hero
    74
    Captain James Newman-Newman
    0
    0
    0
    Did not participate in the battle.
    HMS Donegal
    74
    Captain Pulteney Malcolm
    0
    0
    0
    Did not participate in the battle.
    HMS Resolution
    74
    Captain George Burlton
    0
    0
    0
    Did not participate in the battle.
    HMS Theseus
    74
    Captain John Poer Beresford
    0
    1
    1
    Casualty incurred while serving on fireship, 11 April. Entered anchorage late on 12 April, withdrew without seeing action.
    HMS Valiant
    74
    Captain John Bligh
    0
    0
    0
    Entered anchorage on 12 April. Heavily engaged during the day. Withdrew on morning 13 April.
    HMS Illustrious
    74
    Captain William Robert Broughton
    0
    0
    0
    Did not participate in the battle.
    HMS Bellona
    74
    Captain Stair Douglas
    0
    0
    0
    Did not participate in the battle.
    HMS Revenge
    74
    Captain Alexander Robert Kerr
    5
    13
    18
    Entered anchorage on 12 April. Heavily engaged during the day. Withdrew on morning 13 April.
    Total casualties: 9 killed, 15 wounded
    Last edited by Bligh; 08-10-2019 at 08:04.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    Captain John Tremayne Rodd.

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    Vice-Admiral Sir John Tremayne Rodd, KCB (c. 1769 – 4 October 1838) was an officer of the Royal Navy noted for his services during the Napoleonic Wars. Rodd served in a number of ships, including HMS San Josef under Admiral Sir Charles Cotton and HMS Indefatigable during the Battle of the Basque Roads. In 1809, he married the daughter of James Rennell and in 1825 was promoted to rear-admiral, later advancing to vice-admiral and knighted. He died in 1838.

    Life.

    Little is known of Rodd's early life, but during the French Revolutionary Wars he served as a commander in the sloops HMS Bonetta and HMS Scorpion. In the former he participated in the capture of the French privateer Le Poisson Volant in the West Indies on 4 August 1796, and in the latter he captured the Dutch privateer Courier, for which was promoted to post captain on 7 September 1798. After the Peace of Amiens in 1803, Rodd briefly took command of the first rate ship of the line HMS San Josef under Admiral Sir Charles Cotton, but by 1805 had moved to the veteran frigate HMS Indefatigable. In Indefatigable, Rodd served as the main scout for the British squadron blockading Brest, France. In 1805 he sighted the French fleet under Admiral Ganteaume attempting to escape and warned the Offshore Squadron, who drove the French back into Brest in a brief engagement. In 1806, Rodd was working in conjunction with Captain Lord Cochrane in HMS Pallas and on 15 July Indefatigable was the launch point for a fleet of small boats that attacked a French convoy in the Gironde.

    In early 1809, Rodd gained information concerning the departure of the French frigate Niémen from Brest, which led to her capture in early April. The same month, Indefatigable was heavily engaged at the Battle of Basque Roads, in which the French fleet in Brest was driven onto shoals by fireships launched by Cochrane who then attacked. Cochrane was inadequately supported by Admiral Lord Gambier and as a result only five French ships were destroyed instead of the entire fleet. Throughout the battle Rodd was heavily engaged with superior enemy forces, closely supporting Cochrane's attack. In the summer of 1809 he was called as a witness at the Court-martial of James, Lord Gambier which assessed whether Gambier had failed to support Cochrane at the battle. Gambier was controversially cleared of all charges. He left Indefatigable soon afterwards. In 1809, Rodd married Jane Rennell, daughter of Major James Rennell, a noted geographer who often assisted her father in his work. In 1814, Rodd moved to the ship of the line HMS Warrior but was placed in reserve at the end of the war in the same year.

    In 1825, Rodd was promoted to be a Rear-Admiral of the Red, and on 20 February 1832 he was knighted as a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath.

    He died at Tunbridge Wells in October 1838, survived by his wife and recently promoted to vice-admiral.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

  4. #4
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    Captain Thomas Cochrane.

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    Admiral Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald, Marquess of Maranhão, GCB, ODM, OSC (14 December 1775 – 31 October 1860), styled Lord Cochrane between 1778 and 1831, was a British naval flag officer of the Royal Navy, mercenary and radical politician. He was a daring and successful captain of the Napoleonic Wars, leading Napoleon to nickname him Le Loup des Mers ('The Sea Wolf'). He was successful in virtually all his naval actions.
    He was dismissed from the Royal Navy in 1814 following a controversial conviction for fraud on the Stock Exchange. He helped organise and lead the rebel navies of Chile and Brazil during their respective successful wars of independence through the 1820s. While in charge of the Chilean Navy, Cochrane also contributed to Peruvian Independence through the Freedom Expedition of Perú. He was also asked to help the Greek Navy but was prevented by events from having much impact.
    In 1832, he was pardoned by the Crown and reinstated in the Royal Navy with the rank of Rear Admiral of the Blue. After several more promotions, he died in 1860 with the rank of Admiral of the Red, and the honorary title of Rear-Admiral of the United Kingdom.
    His life and exploits inspired the naval fiction of 19th- and 20th-century novelists, particularly the figures of C. S. Forester's Horatio Hornblower and Patrick O'Brian's protagonist Jack Aubrey.

    Family.


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    Cochrane's father, The 9th Earl of Dundonald (1748-1831).

    Thomas Cochrane was born at Annsfield, near Hamilton, South Lanarkshire, Scotland, the son of Archibald, Lord Cochrane (1748-1831), who later became, in October 1778, The 9th Earl of Dundonald, and his wife, Anna Gilchrist. She was the daughter of Captain James Gilchrist and Ann Roberton, the daughter of Major John Roberton, 16th Laird of Earnock. Thomas, Lord Cochrane, as he himself became in October 1778, had six brothers. Two served with distinction in the military: William Erskine Cochrane of the 15th Dragoon Guards, who served under Sir John Moore in the Peninsular War and reached the rank of major; and Archibald Cochrane, who became a captain in the Navy.
    Lord Cochrane was descended from lines of Scottish aristocracy and military service on both sides of his family. Through his uncle, Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane, the sixth son of The 8th Earl of Dundonald, Cochrane was cousin to his namesake, Admiral of the Fleet Sir Thomas John Cochrane (1789-1872). Sir Thomas J. Cochrane also had a naval career and was appointed as Governor of Newfoundland and later Vice-Admiral of the United Kingdom. By 1793 the family fortune had been spent, and the family estate was sold to cover debts.

    Early life.

    Lord Cochrane spent much of his early life in Culross, Fife, where his family had an estate.

    Through the influence of his uncle Alexander Cochrane, he was listed as a member of the crew on the books of four Royal Navy ships starting when he was five years old. This common (though unlawful) practice called false muster was a means of acquiring the years of service required for promotion, if and when he joined the Navy. His father secured him a commission in the British Army at an early age, but Cochrane preferred the Navy. He joined it in 1793 upon the outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars.

    Service in the Royal Navy.

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    Engraving dated 1827 portraying Cochrane. French ships can be seen burning in the background.

    On 23 July 1793, aged 17, Cochrane joined the navy as a midshipman, spending his first months at Sheerness in the 28-gun sixth-rate frigate HMS Hind commanded by his uncle Captain Alexander Cochrane. He transferred to the 38-gun fifth rate HMS Thetis, also under his uncle's command. While aboard Thetis, he visited Norway and next served at the North America station. In 1795, he was appointed acting lieutenant. The following year on 27 May 1796, he was commissioned lieutenant after passing the examination. After several transfers in North America and a return home in 1798, he was assigned as 8th Lieutenant on Lord Keith's flagship HMS Barfleur in the Mediterranean.

    During his service on Barfleur, Cochrane was court-martialled for showing disrespect to Philip Beaver, the ship's first lieutenant. The board reprimanded him for flippancy. This was the first public manifestation of a pattern of Cochrane being unable to get along with many of his superiors, subordinates, employers, and colleagues in several navies and Parliament, even those with whom he had much in common and who should have been natural allies. His behaviour led to a long enmity with Admiral of the Fleet The 1st Earl of St Vincent.

    In February 1800, Cochrane commanded the prize crew taking the captured French vessel Généreux to the British base at Mahón. The ship was almost lost in a storm, with Cochrane and his brother Archibald going aloft in place of crew who were mostly ill. Cochrane was promoted to commander and took command of the brig sloop HMS Speedy on 28 March 1800. Later that year, a Spanish warship disguised as a merchant ship almost captured him. He escaped by flying a Danish flag and fending off a boarding by claiming that his ship was plague-ridden. On another occasion, he was being chased by an enemy frigate and knew that it would follow him in the night by any glimmer of light from Speedy, so he placed a lantern on a barrel and let it float away. The enemy frigate followed the light and Speedy escaped.

    In February 1801 at Malta, Cochrane got into an argument with a French Royalist officer at a fancy dress ball. He had come dressed as a common sailor, and the Royalist mistook him for one. This argument led to Cochrane's only duel. Cochrane wounded the French officer with a pistol shot and was himself unharmed.

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    The Action and Capture of the Spanish Xebeque Frigate El Gamo, Clarkson Frederick Stanfield

    One of his most notable exploits was the capture of the Spanish xebec frigate El Gamo on 6 May 1801. El Gamo carried 32 guns and 319 men, compared with Speedy's 14 guns and 54 men.[11][12] Cochrane flew an American flag and approached so closely to El Gamo that her guns could not depress to fire on Speedy's hull. The Spanish tried to board and take over the ship but, whenever they were about to board, Cochrane pulled away briefly and fired on the concentrated boarding parties with his ship's guns. Eventually, Cochrane boarded El Gamo and captured her, despite being outnumbered about five to one.

    In Speedy's 13-month cruise, Cochrane captured, burned, or drove ashore 53 ships before three French ships of the line under Admiral Charles-Alexandre Linois captured him on 3 July 1801. While Cochrane was held as a prisoner, Linois often asked him for advice. In his autobiography, Cochrane recounted how courteous and polite the French officer had been. A few days later, he was exchanged for the second captain of another French ship. On 8 August 1801, he was promoted to the rank of post-captain.

    After the Peace of Amiens, Cochrane attended the University of Edinburgh. Upon the resumption of war in 1803, St Vincent assigned him in October 1803 to command the sixth-rate 22-gun HMS Arab. Cochrane alleged that the vessel handled poorly, colliding with Royal Navy ships on two occasions (Bloodhound and Abundance). In his autobiography, he compared Arab to a collier. He wrote that his first thoughts on seeing Arab being repaired at Plymouth were that she would "sail like a haystack." Despite this, he intercepted and boarded the American merchant ship Chatham. This created an international incident, as Britain was not at war with the United States. Arab and her commander were assigned to protect Britain's important whaling fleet beyond Orkney in the North Sea.
    In 1804, Lord St Vincent stood aside for the incoming new government led by William Pitt the Younger, and The 1st Viscount Melville took office. In December of that year, Cochrane was appointed to command of the new 32-gun frigate HMS Pallas. He undertook a series of notable exploits over the following eighteen months.

    In August 1806, he took command of the 38-gun frigate HMS Imperieuse, formerly the Spanish frigate Medea. One of his midshipmen was Frederick Marryat, who later wrote fictionalised accounts of his adventures with Cochrane.

    In Imperieuse, Cochrane raided the Mediterranean coast of France during the continuing Napoleonic Wars. In 1808, Cochrane and a Spanish guerrilla force captured the fortress of Mongat, which straddled the road between Gerona and Barcelona. This delayed General Duhesme's French army for a month. On another raid, Cochrane copied code books from a signal station, leaving behind the originals so that the French would believe them uncompromised. When Imperieuse ran short of water, she sailed up the estuary of the Rhone to replenish. A French army marched into Catalonia and besieged Rosas, and Cochrane took part in the defence of the town. He occupied and defended Fort Trinidad (Castell de la Trinitat) for a number of weeks before the fall of the city forced him to leave; Cochrane was one of the last two men to quit the fort.

    While captain of Speedy, Pallas, and Imperieuse, Cochrane became an effective practitioner of coastal warfare during the period. He attacked shore installations such as the Martello tower at Son Bou on Menorca, and he captured enemy ships in harbour by leading his men in boats in "cutting out" operations. He was a meticulous planner of every operation, which limited casualties among his men and maximised the chances of success.

    In 1809, Cochrane commanded the attack by a flotilla of fire ships on Rochefort, as part of the Battle of the Basque Roads. The attack did considerable damage, but Cochrane blamed fleet commander Admiral Gambier for missing the opportunity to destroy the French fleet, accusations that resulted in the Court-martial of James, Lord Gambier. Cochrane claimed that, as a result of expressing his opinion publicly, the admiralty denied him the opportunity to serve afloat. But documentation shows that he was focussed on politics at this time and, indeed, refused a number of offers of command.

    Political career.

    In June 1806, Lord Cochrane stood for the House of Commons on a ticket of parliamentary reform (a movement which later brought about the Reform Acts) for the potwalloper borough of Honiton. This was exactly the kind of borough which Cochrane proposed to abolish; votes were mostly sold to the highest bidder. Cochrane offered nothing and lost the election. In October 1806, he ran for Parliament in Honiton and won. Cochrane initially denied that he paid any bribes, but he revealed in a Parliamentary debate ten years later that he had paid ten guineas (£10 10s) per voter through Mr. Townshend, local headman and banker.

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    Portrait of Lord Cochrane in 1807 by Peter Edward Stroehling

    In May 1807, Cochrane was elected by Westminster in a more democratic election. He had campaigned for parliamentary reform, allied with such Radicals as William Cobbett, Sir Francis Burdett, and Henry Hunt. His outspoken criticism of the conduct of the war and the corruption in the navy made him powerful enemies in the government. His criticism of Admiral Gambier's conduct at the Battle of the Basque Roads was so severe that Gambier demanded a court-martial to clear his name. Cochrane made important enemies in the Admiralty during this period.

    In 1810, Sir Francis Burdett, a member of parliament and political ally, had barricaded himself in his home at Piccadilly, London, resisting arrest by the House of Commons. Cochrane went to assist Burdett's defence of the house. His approach was similar to what he used in the navy and would have led to numerous deaths amongst the arresting officers and at least partial destruction of Burdett's house, along with much of Piccadilly. On realising what Cochrane planned, Burdett and his allies took steps to end the siege.

    Cochrane was popular with the public but was unable to get along with his colleagues in the House of Commons or within the government. He usually had little success in promoting his causes. An exception was his successful confrontation of a prize court in 1814.

    His conviction in the Great Stock Exchange Fraud of 1814 resulted in Parliament expelling him on 5 July 1814. However, his constituents in the seat of Westminster re-elected him at the resulting by-election on 16 July.

    He held this seat until 1818. In 1818, Cochrane's last speech in Parliament advocated parliamentary reform.

    In 1830, Cochrane initially expressed interest in running for Parliament but then declined. Lord Brougham's brother had decided to run for the seat, and Cochrane also thought that it would look bad for him to be publicly supporting a government from which he sought pardon for his fraud conviction.
    In 1831, his father died and Cochrane became the 10th Earl of Dundonald. As such, he was no longer entitled to sit in the Commons.

    Marriage and children.

    In 1812, Cochrane married Katherine ("Katy") Frances Corbet Barnes, a beautiful orphan who was about twenty years his junior. They met through Cochrane's cousin Nathaniel Day Cochrane. This was an elopement and a civil ceremony, due to the opposition of his wealthy uncle Basil Cochrane, who disinherited his nephew as a result. Cochrane called Katherine "Kate," "Kitty," or "Mouse" in letters to her; she often accompanied her husband on his extended campaigns in South America and Greece.

    Cochrane and Katherine remarried in the Anglican Church in 1818, and in the Church of Scotland in 1825. They had six children;


    • Thomas Barnes Cochrane, 11th Earl of Dundonald, b. 18 April 1814, m. Louisa Harriett McKinnon.
    • William Horatio Bernardo Cochrane, officer, 92nd Gordon Highlanders, b. 8 March 1818 m. Jacobina Frances Nicholson d. 6 February 1900.
    • Elizabeth Katharine Cochrane, died close to her first birthday.
    • Katharine Elizabeth Cochrane, d. 25 August 1869, m. John Willis Fleming.
    • Admiral Sir Arthur Auckland Leopold Pedro Cochrane KCB (Commander of HMS Niger), b. 24 September 1824, d. 20 August 1905.
    • Captain Ernest Gray Lambton Cochrane RN (High Sheriff of Donegal) b. 4 June 1834, d. 2 February 1911 m. 1. Adelaide Blackall 2. Elizabeth Frances Maria Katherine Doherty.
    • The confusion of multiple ceremonies led to suspicions that Cochrane's first son Thomas Barnes Cochrane was illegitimate. Investigation of this delayed Thomas's accession to the Earldom of Dundonald on his father's death.

    Great Stock Exchange Fraud.

    In February 1814, rumours began to circulate of Napoleon's death. The claims were seemingly confirmed by a man in a red staff officer's uniform identified as Colonel de Bourg, aide-de-camp to Lord Cathcart and British ambassador to Russia. He arrived in Dover from France on 21 February bearing news that Napoleon had been captured and killed by Cossacks.
    Share prices rose sharply on the Stock Exchange in reaction to the news and the possibility of peace, particularly in a volatile government stock called Omnium which increased from ​26 12 to 32. However, it soon became clear that the news of Napoleon's death was a hoax. The Stock Exchange established a sub-committee to investigate, and they discovered that six men had sold substantial amounts of Omnium stock during the boom in value. The committee assumed that all six were responsible for the hoax and subsequent fraud. Cochrane had disposed of his entire £139,000 holding in Omnium (equivalent to £9,550,000 in 2018) – which he had only acquired a month before – and was named as one of the six conspirators, as was his uncle Andrew Cochrane-Johnstone and his stockbroker Richard Butt. Within days, an anonymous informant told the committee that Colonel de Bourg was an imposter; he was a Prussian aristocrat named Charles Random de Berenger. He had also been seen entering Cochrane's house on the day of the hoax.

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    A caricature created in 1815 titled Things as they have been. Things as they now are. The left side of the image depicts Cochrane as a heroic naval officer. The right side depicts him as a disgraced civilian imprisoned within the walls of the King's Bench Prison.

    The accused were brought to trial in the Court of King's Bench, Guildhall on 8 June 1814. The trial was presided over by Lord Ellenborough, a High Tory and a notable enemy of the radicals, who had previously convicted and sentenced to prison radical politicians William Cobbett and Henry Hunt in politically motivated trials. The evidence against Cochrane was circumstantial and hinged on the nature of his share dealings, his contacts with the conspirators, and the colour of uniform which De Berenger had been wearing when they met in his house. Cochrane admitted that he was acquainted with De Berenger and that the man had visited his home on the day of the fraud, but insisted that he had arrived wearing a green sharpshooter's uniform rather than the red uniform worn by the person who claimed to be de Bourg. Cochrane said that De Berenger had visited to request passage to the United States aboard Cochrane's new command HMS Tonnant. Cochrane's servants agreed, in an affidavit created before the trial, that the collar of the uniform above De Berenger's greatcoat had been green. However, they admitted to Cochrane's solicitors that they thought the rest had been red. They were not called at trial to give evidence. The prosecution summoned as key witness hackney carriage driver William Crane, who swore that De Berenger was wearing a scarlet uniform when he delivered him to the house. Cochrane's defence also argued that he had given standing instructions to Butt that his Omnium shares were to be sold if the price rose by 1 per cent, and he would have made double profit if he waited until it reached its peak price.
    On the second day of the trial, Lord Ellenborough began his summary of the evidence and drew attention to the matter of De Berenger's uniform; he concluded that witnesses had provided damning evidence. The jury retired to deliberate and returned a verdict of guilty against all the defendants two and a half hours later. Belatedly, Cochrane's defence team found several witnesses who were willing to testify that De Berenger had arrived wearing a green uniform, but Lord Ellenborough dismissed their evidence as inadmissible because two of the conspirators had fled the country upon hearing the guilty verdict. On 20 June 1814, Cochrane was sentenced to 12 months imprisonment, fined £1,000, and ordered to stand in the pillory opposite the Royal Exchange for one hour. In subsequent weeks, he was dismissed from the Royal Navy by the Admiralty and expelled from Parliament following a motion in the House of Commons which was passed by 144 votes to 44. On the orders of the Prince Regent, Cochrane was humiliated by the loss of his appointment Knight of the Order of the Bath in a degradation ceremony at Westminster Abbey. His banner was taken down and physically kicked out of the chapel and down the outside steps. But, within a month, Cochrane was re-elected unopposed as the Member of Parliament for Westminster. Following a public outcry, his sentence to the pillory was rescinded for fears that it would lead to the outbreak of a riot.

    The question of Cochrane's innocence or guilt created much debate at the time, and it has divided historians ever since. Subsequent reviews of the trial carried out by three Lord Chancellors during the course of the 19th century concluded that Cochrane should have been found not guilty on the basis of the evidence produced in court. Cochrane maintained his innocence for the rest of his life and campaigned tirelessly to restore his damaged reputation and to clear his name. He believed that the trial was politically motivated and that a "higher authority than the Stock Exchange" was responsible for his prosecution. A series of petitions put forward by Cochrane protesting his innocence were ignored until 1830. That year, King George IV (the former Prince Regent) died and was succeeded by William IV. He had served in the Royal Navy and was sympathetic to Cochrane's cause. Later that year, the Tory government fell and was replaced by a Whig government in which his friend Lord Brougham was appointed Lord Chancellor. Following a meeting of the Privy Council in May 1832, Cochrane was granted a pardon and restored to the Navy List with a promotion to rear-admiral. Support from friends in the government and the writings of popular naval authors such as Frederick Marryat and Maria Graham increased public sympathy for Cochrane's situation. Cochrane's knighthood was restored in May 1847 with the personal intervention of Queen Victoria, and he was appointed Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath. Only in 1860 was his banner returned to Westminster Abbey; it was the day before his funeral.

    In 1876, his grandson received a payment of £40,000 from the British government (equivalent to £3,700,000 in 2018), based on the recommendations of a Parliamentary select committee, in compensation for Cochrane's conviction. The committee had concluded that his conviction was unjust.

    Service with other navies.

    Chilean Navy.

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    Painting of the First Chilean Navy Squadron commanded by Cochrane

    Lord Cochrane left the UK in official disgrace, but that did not end his naval career. Accompanied by Lady Cochrane and their two children, he reached Valparaíso on 28 November 1818. Chile was rapidly organising its new navy for its war of independence.

    Cochrane became a Chilean citizen (unrecognized state), on 11 December 1818 at the request of Chilean leader Bernardo O'Higgins. He was appointed Vice Admiral and took command of the Chilean Navy in Chile's war of independence against Spain. He was the first Vice Admiral of Chile. Cochrane reorganised the Chilean navy with British commanders, introducing British naval customs and, formally, English-speaking govern in their warships. He took command in the frigate O'Higgins and blockaded and raided the coasts of Peru, as he had those of France and Spain. On his own initiative, he organised and led the capture of Valdivia, despite only having 300 men and two ships to deploy against seven large forts. He failed in his attempt to capture the Chiloé Archipelago for Chile.

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    A painting of the Capture of Valdivia in the Chilean naval and maritime museum

    In 1820, O'Higgins ordered him to convoy the Liberation Army of General José de San Martín to Peru, blockade the coast, and support the campaign for independence. Later, forces under Cochrane's personal command cut out and captured the frigate Esmeralda, the most powerful Spanish ship in South America. All this led to Peruvian independence, which O'Higgins considered indispensable to Chile's security. Cochrane's victories in the Pacific were spectacular and important. The excitement was almost immediately marred by his accusations that he had been plotted against by subordinates and treated with contempt and denied adequate financial reward by his superiors. The evidence does not support these accusations, and the problem appeared to lie in Cochrane's own suspicious and uneasy personality.

    Loose words from his wife Katy resulted in a rumour that Cochrane had made plans to free Napoleon from his exile on Saint Helena and make him ruler of a unified South American state. This could not have been true because Charles,[ the supposed envoy bearing the rumoured plans, had been killed two months before his reported "departure to Europe". Cochrane left the service of the Chilean Navy on 29 November 1822.

    Chilean naval vessels named after Lord Cochrane.

    The Chilean Navy has named five ships Cochrane or Almirante Cochrane (Admiral Cochrane) in his honour:



    Imperial Brazilian Navy.

    Brazil was fighting its own war of independence against Portugal. In 1822, the southern provinces (except Montevideo, now in Uruguay) came under the control of the patriots led by the Prince Regent, later Emperor Pedro I. Portugal still controlled some important provincial capitals in the north, with major garrisons and naval bases such as Belém do Pará, Salvador da Bahia, and São Luís do Maranhão.

    Lord Cochrane took command of the Imperial Brazilian Navy on 21 March 1823 and its flagship Pedro I. He blockaded the Portuguese in Bahia, confronted them at the Battle of 4 May, and forced them to evacuate the province in a vast convoy of ships which Cochrane's men attacked as they crossed the Atlantic. Cochrane sailed to Maranhão (then spelled Maranham) on his own initiative and bluffed the garrison into surrender by claiming that a vast (and mythical) Brazilian fleet and army were over the horizon. He sent subordinate Captain John Pascoe Grenfell to Belém do Pará to use the same bluff and extract a Portuguese surrender. As a result of Cochrane's efforts, Brazil became totally de facto independent and free of any Portuguese troops. On Cochrane's return to Rio de Janeiro in 1824, Emperor Pedro I rewarded the officer by granting him the non-hereditary title of Marquess of Maranhão (Marquês do Maranhão) in the Empire of Brazil. He was also awarded an accompanying coat of arms.

    As in Chile and earlier occasions, Cochrane's joy at these successes was rapidly replaced by quarrels over pay and prize money, and an accusation that the Brazilian authorities were plotting against him.

    In mid-1824, Cochrane sailed north with a squadron to assist the Brazilian army under General Francisco Lima e Silva in suppressing a republican rebellion in the state of Pernambuco which had begun to spread to Maranhão and other northern states. The rebellion was rapidly extinguished. Cochrane proceeded to Maranhão, where he took over the administration. He demanded the payment of prize money which he claimed he was owed as a result of the recapture of the province in 1823. He absconded with public money and sacked merchant ships anchored in São Luís do Maranhão. Defying orders to return to Rio de Janeiro, Cochrane transferred to a captured Brazilian frigate, left Brazil on 10 November 1825, and returned to Britain.

    Greek Navy.

    Cochrane went to Greece to support its fight for independence from the Ottoman Empire, which had deployed an army raised in Egypt to suppress the Greek rebellion. He took an active role in the campaign between March 1827 and December 1828, but met with limited success. His subordinate Captain Hastings attacked Ottoman forces at the Gulf of Lepanto, which indirectly led to intervention by Great Britain, France, and Russia. They succeeded in destroying the Turko–Egyptian fleet at the Battle of Navarino, and the war was ended under mediation of the Great Powers. He resigned his commission at the end of the war and returned to Britain.

    Return to Royal Navy.

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    Lord Dundonald's residence while Commander-in-Chief, North America Station (1848–1851)

    Lord Cochrane inherited his peerage following his father's death on 1 July 1831, becoming The 10th Earl of Dundonald. He was restored to the Royal Navy list on 2 May 1832 as a Rear Admiral of the Blue. The full return of Lord Dundonald, as he was now, to Royal Navy service was delayed by his refusal to take a command until his knighthood had been restored, which took 15 years. He continued to receive promotions in the list of flag officers, as follows:


    • Rear Admiral of the Blue on 2 May 1832
    • Rear Admiral of the White on 10 January 1837
    • Rear Admiral of the Red on 28 June 1838
    • Vice Admiral of the Blue on 23 November 1841
    • Vice Admiral of the White on 9 November 1846
    • Vice Admiral of the Red on 3 January 1848
    • Admiral of the Blue on 21 March 1851
    • Admiral of the White on 2 April 1853
    • Admiral of the Red on 8 December 1857

    On 22 May 1847, Queen Victoria reappointed him Knight of the Order of the Bath. He returned to the Royal Navy, serving as Commander-in-Chief of the North America and West Indies Station from 1848 to 1851. During the Crimean War, the government considered him for a command in the Baltic, but decided that there was too high a chance that Lord Dundonald would risk the fleet in a daring attack. On 6 November 1854, he was appointed to the honorary office of Rear-Admiral of the United Kingdom, an office that he retained until his death.

    In his final years, Lord Dundonald wrote his autobiography in collaboration with G.B. Earp. He twice had to undergo painful surgery for kidney stones in 1860 with his health deteriorating. He died during the second operation on 31 October 1860 in Kensington.

    Dundonald was buried in Westminster Abbey where his grave is in the central part of the nave. Each year in May, representatives of the Chilean Navy hold a wreath-laying ceremony at his grave.

    Innovations in technology.

    Convoys were guided by ships following the lamps of those ahead. In 1805, Lord Cochrane entered a Royal Navy competition for a superior convoy lamp. He believed that the judges were biased against him, so he re-entered the contest under another name and won the prize.

    In 1806, Cochrane had a galley made to his specifications which he carried on board Pallas and used to attack the French coast. It had the advantage of mobility and flexibility.

    In 1812, Lord Cochrane proposed attacking the French coast using a combination of bombardment ships, explosion ships, and "stink vessels" (gas warfare). A bombardment ship consisted of a strengthened old hulk filled with powder and shot and made to list to one side. It was anchored at night to face the enemy behind the harbour wall. When set off, it provided saturation bombardment of the harbour, which would be closely followed by landings of troops. He put the plans forward again before and during the Crimean War. The authorities, however, decided not to pursue his plans.

    In 1818, Cochrane patented the tunnelling shield, together with engineer Marc Isambard Brunel, which Brunel and his son used in building the Thames Tunnel in 1825–43.
    Cochrane was an early supporter of steamships. He tried to take the steamship Rising Star from Britain to Chile for use in the war of independence in the 1820s, but its construction took too long; it did not arrive until the war was ending. Rising Star was a 410-ton vessel adapted to a new design at Brent's Yard at the Greenland Dock at the Thames: twin funnels, a retractable paddle wheel, and driven by a 60-horsepower engine. Similarly, he suffered delays with construction of a steamship which he had hoped to put into use in the Greek War of Independence. In the 1830s, Lord Dundonald, as he now was, experimented with steam power, developing a rotary engine and a propeller. In 1851, Lord Dundonald received a patent on powering steamships with bitumen. He was conferred with Honorary Membership in the Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland in 1857.

    Burial and memorial.

    Lord Dundonald was interred in Westminster Abbey in the floor of the nave directly before the choir. His epitaph, written by Sir Lyon Playfair, reads:

    'Here rests in his 85th year Thomas Cochrane Tenth Earl of Dundonald of Paisley and of Ochiltree in the Peerage of Scotland Marquess of Marenham in the Empire of Brazil GCB and Admiral of the Fleet who by his confidence and genius his science and extraordinary daring inspired by his heroic exertion in the cause of freedom and his splended services alike to his own country, Greece, Brazil, Chile and Peru achieved a name illustrious throughout the world for courage, patriotism and chivalry. Born Dec 14 1775. Died Oct 31 1860'

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    Monument to Lord Cochrane at Valpariso.
    Last edited by Bligh; 05-25-2019 at 09:10.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    Commander Francis Newcombe.

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    FRANCIS NEWCOMBE, Esq.
    A Companion of the Most Honorable Military Order of the Bath.
    [Post-Captain of 1809.]

    This officer was made a Lieutenant in 1794, and advanced to the rank of Commander in 1801. He subsequently commanded the Beagle sloop, stationed off Boulogne, where he captured the French privateers le Hazard, of 14 guns and 49 men; Vengeur, 10 guns and 48 men; and la Fortune, of 14 guns and 58 men. His gallant conduct in Aix Roads on the memorable 11th April (and following days) 1809, is thus recorded in the minutes of a court-martial which was afterwards assembled to investigate the conduct of Lord Gambier:


    Question put to Captain George Wolfe, of l’Aigle frigate.– “Lord Cochrane having remarked to you that some of the fire-ships, upon the first attack upon the enemy, had not been well managed, do you know of any particular fire-ship, or fire-ships, that were improperly conducted on the evening of the 11th April?”
    Answer.– “I cannot particularise those that were badly managed; the ship that passed between us and the island of Oleron, and got on shore there, was the only one I particularly noticed.”
    Q.– “Do you know her name?”
    A.– “I do not; I hailed five that came very near us. Our own ship was very nearly burnt by two that were badly managed, and which were on fire as they passed us. I could only learn the names of the officers of two of the fire-ships that behaved well; they did not fire their ships till after they had passed me. Five behaved very well: one of them was commanded by Captain Newcombe, who desired me to remember he had passed us[1].”



    The following is Captain Newcombe’s own account of his proceedings on the ensuing day:


    “Being under weigh, on the 12th April, and it being reported to me that a signal was made by the commander-in-chief – the frigates to go to the ship making signals of distress in such a quarter – I felt it my duty to proceed on after the Imperieuse, to Aix Roads; l’Aigle and the other frigates, besides the Valiant and Revenge, following. Conceiving it the intent of the commander-in-chief that I should so proceed, on having previously discovered the Etna bomb and several gun-brigs making sail for the anchorage, preceding the Imperieuse, and which I judged was from the directions they received from the commander-in-chief, I judged it prudent to reserve in preparation my bower anchor and cable, for any of the ships that might require it, concluding that there was a great probability that it might be required by either the line-of-battle ships or frigates. I caused my own stream-cable and anchor to be ready with a spring to it, to make use of as a bower to bring up the sloop I command, the wind being then moderate enough to ride her by, and to facilitate my movements to wherever I should be required. I brought up in Aix Roads, with my stream-anchor, on the larboard quarter of the Imperieuse, and without her, merely that I should not interrupt the anchorage of the line-of-battle ships and frigates that were close to me. The bomb and the gun-brigs were lying a little farther to the westward of me. There were some shot fired in their direction, and towards me, from the Imperieuse. No signal, whatever, having been previously made for the direction of any of the vessels, I sent Lieutenant Price with a message to Lord Cochrane, to know if those shot were fired at the isle of Oleron, or by mistake, or intentionally: if the latter, I felt very indignant at it. I brought up there, because I should not be in the way of the frigates and line-of-battle ships; and I should have thought it a most injudicious step, had I placed my sloop in such a situation so as to have prevented the services of a larger force: nor neither was there room between the Imperieuse and the Palles shoal for any more than one, which situation the Indefatigable took up. Moreover, I explained that I had neither chart nor any person on board that had ever been there before. The tide then falling, had I touched upon the Palles, the Beagle must inevitably have been lost. When I sent the officer away with this message, I was prepared to weigh my anchor, in the event of any situation being pointed out. A signal from the Imperieuse was made to close. In about two or three minutes I shot the vessel in between the Indefatigable and le Jean Bart (74), which ship was previously cast away on the Palles shoal, and brought up with my stream a second time, and commenced firing upon the enemy, the Ville de Varsovie (80) more particularly. This continued for about a quarter of an hour, or twenty minutes, as far as I can recollect. Finding my rudder almost coming in contact with the wreck of the Jean Bart, and being too near the Indefatigable, so much so, that my masts and rigging were in danger from her fire, I got a second time under weigh, and kept so until six o’clock that night, under top-sails, jib, and spanker, to annoy the enemy in such situations as I thought I could act best. My second Lieutenant was away from the time I sent the message, to sound about the Palles and the entrance of the Charente; and observing that the Calcutta (50) was abandoned, went on board of her, at the same lime that another boat, which I understood to belong to the Imperieuse, went alongside to take possession of her. Seeing an opportunity to annoy the Aquilon (74), I made sail for her stern within pistol-shot, and commenced firing upon her; she returned it, carrying away many of my ropes, and all my larboard main-top-mast rigging; having fired upon her for about ten minutes, she struck her colours. I lowered a boat down, to send an officer on board to take possession of her, first tacking or wearing my head off. She again opened her fire, and I was obliged to return it also. I kept my main-top-sail spilling, to preserve my situation close to her. Perceiving all her boats manned, and the ship’s company abandoning her, I concluded that her firing, after she had struck, was from accident, and not by design. I then stood out, and back again, as occasion might require, being then in 17 or 18 feet water, and the tide fast falling[2]; and as no more annoyance could be given to any of the enemy’s ships, viz. those upon the Palles shoal, and which I afterwards learned to he the Calcutta, Tonnere (74), Ville de Varsovie, and Aquilon. I then recollect (seeing nothing more to be done, in my opinion) to have recommended to some of the frigates to trip their anchors und shoot a little further out, to prevent their grounding at low water; telling them that I found more water a little further to the W.S.W. or the S.W. About six, or half-past, I brought up my sloop with the bower in about five fathoms; and nothing being required of the Beagle, I caused the crew to get their dinner. I went with the boats afterwards, and staid till twelve o’clock that night, engaged in the service going on.”

    On the morning of the 18th April, Lord Cochrane made arrangements for destroying the remainder of the French ships.


    “About ten o’clock,” continues Captain Newcombe, “I proceeded in towards the Vice-Admiral’s ship, a two-decker, and a frigate, situated at the mouth of the Charente. I brought up, when on the Ocean’s quarter, in sixteen feet water, and engaged her from the hour of eleven until four o’clock, she returning the fire from her stern and quarter, as well as the other line-of-battle ship and frigate; Isle d’Aix occasionally throwing shells, and many of the splinters falling upon deck[3]. During these five hours my standing and running rigging were very much injured; my main-yard and top-masts were shot through; and several shot in my hull, * * * * * I weighed at about four o’clock, the tide then fulling, and turned up to my former anchorage, under a heavy fire from the batteries on the Isle d’Aix[4].



    During the trial to which we have alluded, it was stated in evidence, that the conduct of Captain Newcombe had gained him the admiration of the commander-in-chief, and the officers of the fleet who had observed his proceedings[5].

    “I beg leave to assure this court,” says Lord Gambier, “that he acquitted himself in the command of the Beagle, in Aix Roads, in a manner highly honorable to himself, and certainly satisfactory to me[6].”


    Captain Newcombe’s gallantry and activity on that occasion were duly appreciated, his post commission being dated back to the 11th April, 1809. He subsequently commanded the Wanderer, of 20 guns; Chesapeake frigate; Bulwark 74 (pro tempore); and Pyramus 42; the latter ship employed at the Leeward Islands, on the peace establishment. The Pyramus was paid off in June, 1825.


    Mrs. Newcombe died at Weymouth, Dec. 21, 1823.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    Captain Anthony Abdy.


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    Captain Anthony Thomas Abdy was born in 1780. He was the son of
    Reverend Thomas Abdy and Mary Hayes. He was the brother of John Rutherforth Abdy.

    He gained the rank of Captain in the Royal Navy.

    Abdy was made a Lieutenant in Feb. 1800; advanced to the rank of Commander, April 29, 1802; appointed to the Zephyr fire-ship, in 1804. to the Dotterell brig, about Nov. 1808;where he served at the Basque Rhodes, and later to acting Captain in the Tonnant 80, off Ferrol, about June, 1809. His post commission bears the date of Oct. 21, 1810. The year in which he retired from the Navy.

    He became a freemason in 1814. After his retirement, he lived at Naples (Italy) for some years, but in 1821 the concerns of the British consul there about his mental health led to his repatriation to England and his being placed in the care of Dr. Burrowes at The Retreat, Clapham, and he remained there for the rest of his life; in March 1832 he was formally declared to be a lunatic.

    Captain Abdy married, 23 August 1808 at Sonning (Berks), Grace, illegitimate daughter of Admiral Sir Thomas Rich, 5th and last bt., of Sonning,

    He died in the Retreat Asylum, 9 June 1838 and was buried at Holy Trinity, Clapham (Surrey), 14 June 1838.

    His wife was buried at St Andrew, Plymouth (Devon), 28 March 1811.


    Issue.

    Sir Thomas Neville Abdy, 1st Bt.
    b. 21 Dec 1810, d. 20 Jul 1877


    Last edited by Bligh; 06-03-2019 at 14:00.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    Captain GEORGE WOLFE, Esq


    A Companion of the most Honorable Military Order of the Bath.

    [Post-Captain of 1800.]

    This officer was born Aug. 3, 1766, and had the misfortune to lose his father when only eight years of age. His mother (a daughter of Colonel Sharpless, who served with credit under Charles, second Duke of Marlborough), after repeated attempts to divert him from his early intentions of becoming a sailor, at length yielded to the persuasions of the late Lady Spencer, under whose patronage he entered the naval service as a Midshipman on board the Ocean of 90 guns, commanded by Captain George Ourry, April 2, 1780.

    The Ocean formed part of the Channel fleet under Admiral Geary, at the capture of twelve French West Indiamen, valued at 91,000l., July 3, 1780. She was likewise present at the relief of Gibraltar, by Vice-Admiral Darby; and the capture of fifteen transports, laden with military stores and full of troops, in 1781; as also at the capture of twelve others, April 20, 1782.

    Mr. Wolfe continued in the Ocean, which ship was successively commanded by Captains Ourry, Edgar, Cleland, and Phipps, till May 1782, when he was removed into the Royal George, a first rate, bearing the flag of Rear-Admiral Kempenfelt, in the Channel fleet. Fortunately for him he escaped sharing the fate of many of his former messmates, who were lost in that noble vessel at Spithead, by following Captain Phipps into the Berwick of 74 guns. This may with propriety be termed the third miraculous escape he had experienced in less than two years and a half, from the commencement of his professional career.

    The Berwick accompanied Earl Howe to the relief of Gibraltar, in 1782; and bore a part in the subsequent action with the combined fleets off Cape Spartel, on which occasion Mr. Wolfe was wounded in the face and neck. During the remainder of the war, we find her stationed in the West Indies, under the orders of Admiral Pigot. She was put out of commission June 30, 1783.

    During the ensuing peace, Mr. Wolfe served in the various ships commanded by Captains Herbert Sawyer, Charles Chamberlayne, Robert Fanshawe, Charles M. Pole, J. Smith, and Thomas Hicks.

    In 1790, an explosion accidentally took place on board the Orion 74, Captain Chamberlayne, then at anchor in Carlisle Bay, Barbadoes. Mr. Wolfe was at that time confined to his bed by a fever, which had already carried off 23 men, and to which the Surgeon, who was an atheist, predicted he would also fall a victim in less than twenty-four hours. So great was the alarm among the crew, that many of the people jumped through the ports and were drowned. During the confusion, Mr. Wolfe’s cot was broken down, and as he lay on the deck, his ears were assailed by the dreadful cries of some who were drowning, and others in distress. Not relishing the idea of being burnt alive, he contrived to pull on his trowsers and crawl to the gun-room ports, where he saw the Surgeon hanging by the rudder chains, kicking and screaming most furiously, and holding out his purse as an inducement for a boat that had been sent to the Orion’s assistance, to come and save him from being devoured by the sharks: so much for the carelessness about futurity, of a person who denied the existence of a God, and attributed “surrounding nature and all its astonishing phoenomena to chance, or a fortuitous concourse of atoms.” Strengthened in an extraordinary manner by the fright to which he had been subjected, Mr. Wolfe managed to hand the poor wretch a rope’s end, by which he was enabled once more to obtain a firm footing on the Orion’s deck, and observe the recovery of his patient; the preservation of whose life may reasonably be attributed to his dormant pulse being suddenly roused into action by the terror excited in his breast, on hearing the appalling cry of “fire,” and witnessing the despair of his shipmates.

    At the commencement of the French revolutionary war, Mr. Wolfe, who had passed his examination upwards of four years, joined the Windsor Castle, a second rate, bearing the flag of Rear-Admiral Cosby, with whom he soon after sailed for the Mediterranean station. During the occupation of Toulon by the allied forces, he served as a volunteer in several land and floating batteries, and was consequently often engaged with the enemy. After the evacuation of that place, and while the fleet was lying among the Hieres islands, an hospital ship parted her cable, and drifted into a small bay, where she was completely commanded by the republicans. The boats of the fleet were immediately sent to take out her wounded and sick inmates; but owing to the sharp fire kept up by the enemy from behind a breastwork, as they approached, the Windsor Castle’s launch, commanded by Mr. Richard Hawkins, a Midshipman, was the only boat that succeeded in boarding her. On this occasion, one of the launch’s crew was killed, but 12 wounded soldiers were rescued.
    It being determined to renew the attempt, an order was issued for all the boats to assemble alongside a frigate, sent in shore to cover them in their approach. The Windsor Castle’s launch was this time commanded by Mr. Wolfe, who volunteered his services, and was fortunate enough to bring off 13 more of the wounded men. He was soon followed by a boat manned with French royalists, who behaved most nobly, and the vessel was at length finally cleared, and afterwards set on fire by Lieutenant Thomas George Shortland, of the Nemesis. In the execution of this hazardous service, Mr. Wolfe was very much hurt by a soldier in a heavy wooden cradle falling from the gunwale of the hospital ship into the launch, striking him on his head, and bending him backwards with such violence, as to cause the blood to gush from every aperture in his head and body. In consequence of this accident, he was confined to his hammock for the space of two months; a circumstance, which however painful in itself, was by no means so mortifying to him as that of seeing the Lieutenant who had been sent from the Victory to command the boats promoted to the rank of Commander, whilst his own conduct and sufferings passed unrewarded.

    Subsequent to his recovery, Mr. Wolfe served on shore, under Captains Serecold, Miller, and Cooke, at the reduction of Corsica. By the latter officer he was introduced to Lord Hood, who received him very kindly, and ordered him to be removed to the Victory; in which ship he returned to England as Master’s Mate, towards the close of 1794.

    On his arrival at Portsmouth, Mr. Wolfe was advanced to the rank of Lieutenant in the Phaeton frigate, commanded by the Hon. Robert Stopford, with whom he continued about two years and nine months. In Sept. 1797, he was made a Commander, and appointed to the Sally armed ship, on the North Sea station.
    Soon after this promotion, Captain Wolfe being on a cruise off the Yorkshire coast, in a very thick fog, suddenly found himself close to a French ship, which afterwards proved to be le Republicain of 36 guns and 360 men. The Sally, originally a collier, mounted 14 old fashioned carronades (24-pounders), and had a complement of 45 men. On the fog beginning to disperse, the enemy, then within pistol-shot, was observed lowering a boat to take possession of his expected prize, whose starboard guns, loaded with two rounds of grape-shot, were instantaneously discharged into the French frigate, and with such effect as to bring down her jib and spanker, which afforded Captain Wolfe an opportunity of putting about and effecting his escape: the confusion on board le Republicain, occasioned by this unexpected salute, being so great, that by the time she had wore and come to the wind on the other tack, the Sally was at least a mile on her weather bow. Captain Wolfe’s conduct on this occasion was highly approved by the Admiralty.

    The Sally was afterwards employed affording protection to the Baltic and Hamburgh trade; and in the course of the two following years, captured several Dutch vessels, two of which were Greenlandmen.

    Captain Wolfe obtained post rank Dec. 10, 1800; and was appointed to the Galatea of 32 guns in April 1801. During the ensuing peace, we find him employed conveying troops from Guernsey and different ports in England, to Holland. His next appointment was Dec. 24, 1802, to the Aigle frigate, then recently launched; and in March following he received orders to repair to Portland, for the purpose of impressing seamen, and raising volunteers for the navy. On his arrival he communicated with the Mayor of Weymouth, and found that the sailors belonging to that neighbourhood had placed themselves under the protection of the stone quarry men, who soon proceeded to acts of violence against his own people, who after being severely handled, were obliged to retreat from the quay to their boats. Confiding in the promise of the Mayor, who had agreed to furnish a sufficient number of constables to assist him and preserve order, Captain Wolfe landed, at 4 P.M. on the 1st April, at the head of 50 seamen and marines, but had scarcely got on shore before his party were fired on by a number of sailors collected on the beach; A scuffle now ensued, and two of the rioters, named Porter and Wey, were secured, the one armed with a poker, the other with a reap-hook. The remainder of the mob retiring towards the Bill of Portland, were soon re-inforced by nearly 300 men, armed with muskets, pistols, and cutlasses, which had been plundered from the transports wrecked on that coast in 1795. This formidable body, urged on by two constables, lost no time in attacking their unwelcome visitors, 16 or 17 of whom were dreadfully wounded. At length, after the most patient forbearance on the part of Captain Wolfe, who was himself seized and cruelly treated, the marines opened their fire, killed 4 of the rioters, and obliged the remainder to retreat; which they did with so much precipitation, that only 3 could be secured.
    As soon as the Aigle’s wounded men reached their ship, Captain Wolfe despatched a Lieutenant, (the present Earl of Huntingdon) to lay a correct account of this unfortunate affair before the Admiralty, and prevent the misrepresentations with which public opinion is usually abused in like cases; but on his landing at Weymouth, that officer and Mr. Morgan, a Midshipman, were recognized by the mob, who seized them, and compelled the Mayor, by threatening worse consequences, to commit them to Dorchester gaol for the alleged murder of the unhappy men who had fallen the victims of their own disloyal conduct.
    The Coroner having returned a verdict of wilful murder against Captain Wolfe, Lieutenant Francis Hastings, Lieutenant Jefferies of the marines, and Mr. John Fortescue Morgan, the Midshipman, those gentlemen surrendered themselves for trial at the ensuing summer assizes, and after a full investigation of their conduct were fully acquitted, the jury agreeing that they had merely acted in self defence.

    In the interim, between the holding of the coroner’s inquest and his trial, Captain Wolfe went on a cruise, and was fortunate enough to intercept six homeward bound French West Indiamen. Towards the latter end of the same year, he captured, after a long chase, l’Alert privateer of 16 guns and 90 men.

    On the 12th July, 1804, the Aigle fell in with two French corvettes, proceeding from Rochefort to Bayonne, with ordnance and stores for a ship of war just launched at that port. These vessels, at first, seemed resolved to try their strength with the British frigate; but on her near approach, fired a single broadside, and ran on shore about ten leagues to the southward of Cordouan. Every effort was made by Captain Wolfe, during the ensuing night and part of the next day, to get them afloat again, but without effect; and he was at length obliged to destroy them by fire. They proved to be la Charante of twenty 6-pounders, 4 swivels, and 104 men; and la Joie of eight 12-pounders (pierced for 14 guns), 2 swivels, and 75 men. The greater part of their crews escaped to the shore; several were drowned by the swamping of the boats, owing to the heavy surf on the beach; and the remainder, amounting to 26 officers and men, were taken prisoners. In Sept. 1805, Captain Wolfe, being off Vigo, was attacked during a calm, by nine Spanish gun -boats. After an hour’s cannonade, a breeze sprung up, and enabled him to capture the Commodore’s vessel, sink another, and drive the rest on shore. The prize carried a long 24-pounder, and 29 men, 4 of whom belonged to the artillery.

    From this period, we find no particular mention of Captain Wolfe till March 1808; in the course of which month, he discovered two French frigates pushing for l’Orient, under a press of sail. The Aigle, at this time cruising near the Glenan islands, immediately went in pursuit, passing between Isle Groais and the main; and after sustaining a heavy fire from the land batteries on both sides, compelled one of the enemy’s ships to take shelter under a fort on the S.E. side of the island. The other, la Furieuse of 40 guns, was soon after brought to close action, and ultimately obliged to run ashore on Point du Chat. The Aigle, in this dashing affair, had three guns split and dismounted, a bower anchor cut in two, her masts and yards much damaged, and 22 officers and men wounded: among the former we find the names of Captain Wolfe and Lieutenant Lamb. She subsequently captured, after a long chase, les Six Freres of 18 guns, from Bourdeaux bound to the Mauritius.

    The Aigle formed part of the detachment sent from Lord Gambier’s fleet to attack a French squadron in Aix Roads, April 12, 1809; and on that occasion was the second ship which opened her fire on the enemy. After assisting at the destruction of four 2-deckers, Captain Wolfe relieved Lord Cochrane in the command of the advanced squadron, consisting of a bomb, several gun-brigs, and other small vessels; obliged the enemy to burn a frigate which had got on shore in the Charante, and the remainder of their ships to retreat up that river, after throwing overboard all their guns and stores. On this anxious and fatiguing service, he continued as long as there existed a possibility of annoying and harrassing the fugitives; the Aigle preserving her station above the Boyart shoal, although much exposed to an attack from the French gun-boats, for a period of fifteen days, during which Captain Wolfe was never once in bed.

    On the 11th Aug. following, the Aigle had 1 man killed and 4 dreadfully wounded, by the explosion of an 18-inch shell, which fell on board her when forcing the passage of the Scheldt, in company with a squadron of frigates, under the orders of Lord William Stuart.

    In Sept. 1810, Captain Wolfe being on a cruise off the Western islands, fell in with, and after a chase of one hundred and thirty-four miles, in thirteen hours, captured le Phoenix French privateer, mounting eighteen 18-pounders, with a complement of 129 men, commanded by M. Jacques Perrond, a Lieutenant in the French navy, and a Member of the Legion of Honor. In addition to the foregoing services, he appears to have taken, at different times during the war, two Prussian, three Danish, one American, one Russian, and upwards of one hundred and fifty French vessels; the latter principally coasters of from 10 to 100 tons. He was nominated a C.B. in 1815.
    Last edited by Bligh; 05-25-2019 at 13:47.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    Captain Frederick Lewis Maitland.

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    Rear-Admiral
    Sir Frederick Lewis Maitland KCB (7 September 1777 – 30 November 1839) was an officer in the Royal Navy during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. He rose to the rank of rear admiral and held a number of commands. The most famous event of his career occurred when Napoleon Bonaparte surrendered to him aboard HMS Bellerophon, marking the final end of the Napoleonic Wars.


    Family and early life.

    Maitland was born at Rankeilour, Fife on 7 September 1777, as the third son of Frederick Lewis Maitland (1730–1786), himself a distinguished naval officer. Several other members of Maitland's family were serving officers in the army, including his uncle, General Sir Alexander Maitland, 1st Baronet and his cousin, General Frederick Maitland (1763–1848). Having received an education at the Royal High School, Edinburgh, Maitland followed his father into the Navy, spending his first years aboard the sloop HMS Martin, under Captain George Duff, followed by a period aboard the frigate HMS Southampton with Robert Forbes. Whilst aboard Southampton, Maitland was present at the Glorious First of June in 1794.

    Promotion to lieutenant.

    Maitland was promoted to lieutenant on 3 April 1795 and appointed to HMS Andromeda. He soon moved to HMS Venerable, which was then in the North Sea, serving as the flagship of Admiral Adam Duncan. Maitland then moved to the Mediterranean in April 1797, joining the fleet under John Jervis, Lord St Vincent. Jervis appointed him to the sloop HMS Kingfisher. Maitland was part of several successful cruises, and assisted in the capturing of several privateers. He quickly became noted for his courage, and the ships' company subscribed £50 to present him with a sword. He did not spend long with Kingfisher though, as she was wrecked on 3 December 1798 as she was leaving the Tagus. Maitland had been in temporary command at the time, and received the customary court-martial. He was honourably acquitted and appointed to serve at Gibraltar as flag lieutenant to Lord St Vincent.

    A spell in captivity and first commands.

    The combined fleets of France and Spain were retiring from the Mediterranean by mid-1799, and on 7 July St Vincent ordered Maitland to go aboard the hired armed cutter Penelope with orders for her to carry out reconnaissance on the enemy fleets, as St Vincent put it, 'to go, count and dodge them'.

    When Maitland arrived however, he found the Penelope's lieutenant was sick and unable to take command. Maitland took over instead and attempted to follow his orders. He was apparently hampered by the cowardice and disobedience of the crew of the cutter, and the next day the Spanish captured Penelope and brought her into Cadiz as a prize. There Maitland met the Spanish admiral, Mazaredo. Mazeredo discovered that Maitland was Lord St Vincent's flag lieutenant. Being under an obligation to St Vincent, Mazaredo set Maitland free and returned him to Gibraltar without requesting an exchange. On his return, St Vincent promoted Maitland to commander and gave him the sloop HMS Cameleon, with the promotion being backdated to 14 June. Maitland commanded her off the coast of Egypt, under Sir Sidney Smith until the signing of the convention of al-'Arish on 24 January 1800. Maitland was sent home overland with dispatches, but quickly returned to his command. He spent the rest of 1800 aboard the Cameleon, before Lord Keith moved him to the command of the storeship HMS Wassenar. The Wassenar was at that time moored at Malta, and had been deemed unfit for service. Maitland was given permission instead to accompany the expedition to Egypt. He was appointed to command the boats that were covering the landings and acquitted himself well. He then moved to support the army's right flank during operations on 13 March, and at the Battle of Alexandria on 21 March 1801. His service was specially acknowledged by the commanders-in-chief, and he was mentioned in Sidney Smith's report. These actions caused him to be rewarded with a promotion to post rank, dated to 21 March. He temporarily took command of the 74-gun HMS Dragon, but had moved to command HMS Carrère in August. He returned with her to England, and she was paid off in October 1802.

    Further action.

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    Maitland's wife, Catherine

    Maitland married Catherine, the second daughter of Daniel Connor of Ballybricken, County Limerick, Ireland in April 1804. They had only one child, which died in infancy. By this time Maitland's patron St Vincent had been made first lord of the Admiralty. With the outbreak of war he appointed Maitland to the 38-gun HMS Loire, which Maitland sailed off the west coast of France and the north coast of Spain. Maitland spent three years with the Loire, during which time he captured or destroyed a number of privateers and coastal batteries. He was involved in a particularly heroic action on 4 June 1805 in Muros Bay, south of Cape Finisterre, for which he received the thanks of the City of London, the freedom of Cork, and a sword from the Patriotic Fund.[1] He also took part in the capture of the French frigate Libre on 24 December 1805. His next command was the 36-gun HMS Emerald, which he took up in November 1806. The service was the same as the Loire's, and Maitland continued his successes aboard her. He was at the Battle of the Basque Roads in April 1809, but due to the confusion Emerald was one of the ships that were not sent in until 12 April.

    Aboard Bellerophon.

    Maitland was given command of the 58-gun HMS Goliath between 1813 and 1814, and was sent aboard her to the Halifax and West Indian stations. He was appointed to the 98-gun HMS Boyne in November 1814 and ordered to sail to North America. Maitland spent the early part of 1815 gathering a fleet of transports and merchants in Cork harbour in preparation for crossing the Atlantic, but found himself unable to set sail due to a succession of strong westerly winds. Before he could sail, news reached England of Napoleon's escape from Elba and his return as Emperor of the French. Maitland's orders were immediately countermanded, and he was moved to the 74-gun HMS Bellerophon. He sailed aboard her from Plymouth on 24 May, under the orders of Sir Henry Hotham.

    Bellerophon was stationed off Rochefort in the Bay of Biscay, watching the French warships in the harbour. Whilst Bellerophon was off Rochefort, Napoleon was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo. News of this reached Maitland on 28 June, followed by a letter from Bordeaux that warned him that Napoleon was planning an escape to America from the French Atlantic coast, probably from Bordeaux. Maitland believed that Rochefort was the more likely point of escape, but took the precaution of sending two smaller craft to cover other ports, one to Bordeaux, and another to Arcachon. He kept Bellerophon herself off Rochefort. Hotham was aboard HMS Superb covering Quiberon Bay, whilst a string of British frigates, corvettes, and brigs were watching all along the coast. Hotham told Maitland that should he intercept Bonaparte, he was to take the former emperor to England.

    Maitland and Napoleon.


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    Napoleon and his officers aboard the Bellerophon

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    Tumbler given to Maitland by Napoleon


    Maitland's instincts proved correct, and Napoleon arrived at Rochefort in early July. By this time, he was in an untenable position. He could no longer remain in France without risking arrest; indeed, Prussian troops had orders to capture him dead or alive. However, the Bellerophon and the rest of Hotham's fleet were blocking every port. He therefore authorised the opening of negotiations with Maitland. The negotiations opened on 10 July. Maitland refused to allow Napoleon to sail for America, but offered to take him to England instead. The negotiations went on for four days, but eventually Napoleon acquiesced. He surrendered to Maitland on 15 July and embarked on the Bellerophon with his staff and servants.

    Maitland placed his cabin at the former emperor's disposal and sailed the Bellerophon to England. She reached Torbay on 24 July, then was ordered to Plymouth, whilst a decision was made by the government over Bonaparte's fate. She sailed again on 4 August and whilst off Berry Head on 7 August, Napoleon and his staff were removed to HMS Northumberland, which conveyed him to his final exile on Saint Helena. Maitland later wrote a detailed narrative of Bonaparte's time on the Bellerophon, which he subsequently published in 1826.

    Royal duties and rise to rear admiral.

    Maitland took command of the 74-gun HMS Vengeur in October 1818, and in 1819 sailed her to South America. He took Lord George Beresford from Rio de Janeiro to Lisbon in 1820, and then returned to the Mediterranean. He then carried Ferdinand I, king of the Two Sicilies from Naples to Livorno. The passage was rough and lasted seven days, but they arrived safely on 20 December. As a token of gratitude the king invested Maitland with the insignia of a knight commander of the Order of St Ferdinand and Merit, and presented him with his portrait, set with diamonds, in a gold box.
    Maitland then returned to England, and was appointed to command the 74-gun HMS Genoa, the guardship at Portsmouth. He spent three years aboard her, leaving her in August 1823. He commanded HMS Wellesley in the Mediterranean between 1827 and 1830, and was promoted to Rear Admiral of the Blue on 22 July 1830, and Rear Admiral of the Red on 10 January 1837. He had been appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath (CB) on the restructuring of the Order in 1815, and on 17 November 1830 he was advanced to Knight Commander (KCB). He was appointed a Deputy Lieutenant of the County of Fife on 5 March 1831.

    Indian service.

    He was admiral superintendent of the dockyard at Portsmouth between 1832 and 1837. He was appointed commander-in-chief in the East Indies and China Station in July 1837, and raised his flag in the Wellesley again. He co-operated with the army during its advance from Bombay towards Afghanistan in February 1839, and captured the town and fort of Karachi, going on to oversee the landing of troops and supplies. News then reached him of disturbances at Bushehr, so he set off to investigate. He landed Marines and evacuated the resident and his staff, without punishing the rioters. The Anglo-Indian press subsequently criticised this action as being injudiciously lenient.

    Death.

    Maitland died on 30 November 1839 whilst at sea on board the Wellesley, off Bombay. He was buried at Bombay. A monument was later erected by subscription to his memory in the cathedral.

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    St Thomas' Cathedral Mumbai.


    His wife, Lady Maitland, died in 1865 at Lindores, Fife.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    Captain Lucius Hardyman.


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    This officer is a son of the late Captain Hardyman, of Portsmouth, and a brother of Major-General Hardyman, who died in India Nov. 28, 1821. We find no mention of him previous to March 1, 1799; on which day he greatly distinguished himself as first Lieutenant of the Sybille frigate, in an action with la Forte of 52 guns, the command of which ship was afterwards conferred upon him by Vice-Admiral Rainier. His post commission bears date Jan. 27, 1800.


    La Forte was wrecked in the Red Sea about June 1801; but fortunately her crew were saved. Captain Hardyman subsequently commanded the Unicorn frigate, on the West India station, and at the reduction of Monte Video, by Rear-Admiral Stirling, and Brigadier-General Auchmuty. He also assisted at the destruction of a French squadron in Aix Roads, April 11, 1809. His next appointment was to the Armicle of 38 guns, employed cruising off the French coast.


    On the 4th May, 1801, Captain Hardyman sent .the boats of that ship, assisted by those of the Cadmus, Daring, and Monkey, to attack a number of the enemy’s armed and coasting vessels, at the isle of Rhé; thirteen of which were destroyed under a heavy fire from the batteries, and four others driven on shore.


    Captain Hardyman was nominated a C.B. in 1815. He married, Dec. 29, 1810, Charlotte, youngest daughter of the late John Travers, Esq., of Bedford Place, London.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    Captain George Seymour.


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    Admiral of the Fleet Sir George Francis Seymour
    GCB, GCH, PC
    (17 September 1787 – 20 January 1870)

    He was a
    Royal Navy officer. After serving as a junior officer during the French Revolutionary Wars, Seymour commanded the third-rate HMS Northumberland under Admiral Sir John Duckworth at the Battle of San Domingo during the Napoleonic Wars. He also commanded the sloopHMS Kingfisher at the blockade of Rochefort and the fifth-rate HMS Pallas under Admiral Lord Gambier at the Battle of the Basque Roads. He then saw active service during the War of 1812.



    Seymour became Third Naval Lord in the Second Peel ministry and went on to be Commander-in-Chief Pacific Station. In late 1844 the French Admiral Abel Thouars entered into a confrontation with Queen Pōmare IV of Tahiti and with the English missionary and consul George Pritchard, expelling the consul and establishing a French protectorate over the territory: this matter became known as the "Pritchard Affair". Seymour handled this matter tactfully and avoided a confrontation with the French Government who had already denounced Thouars' actions. Seymour later served as Commander-in-Chief North America and West Indies Station and then as Commander-in-Chief, Portsmouth.


    Early career.

    Seymour was the eldest son of Vice-Admiral Lord Hugh Seymour and Anna Horatia Waldegrave (a daughter of James Waldegrave, 2nd Earl Waldegrave) and joined the Royal Navy in October 1797. He was assigned to the Royal yacht HMY Princess Augusta and then transferred to the third-rateHMS Sans Pareil in the Channel Squadron in March 1798 and to the second-rateHMS Prince of Wales in the West Indies later that year. He was present when the Batavian Republic surrendered Suriname to British forces in August 1799 during the French Revolutionary Wars and, having been promoted to midshipman, transferred to the fifth-rateHMS Acasta early in 1800. He joined the fifth-rate HMS Endymion in 1802 and then transferred to the first-rateHMS Victory, flagship of the Mediterranean Squadron, in 1803, to the fourth-rateHMS Madras in February 1804 and, having been promoted to lieutenant on 12 October 1804, to the third-rate HMS Donegal later that month. In HMS Donegal he took part in the pursuit of the French Fleet, under the command of Admiral Pierre-Charles Villeneuve, to the West Indies and back in Summer 1805 during the Napoleonic Wars before seeing action at the capture of the Spanish 100-gun Rayo in October 1805.


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    The third-rate HMS Northumberland (right), which Seymour commanded in the West Indies

    Promoted to commander on 23 January 1806, Seymour became commanding officer of the third-rate HMS Northumberland, flagship of the West Indies Squadron, in January 1806 and fought under Admiral Sir John Duckworth at the Battle of San Domingo where he was wounded off the southern coast of the French-occupied Spanish colony San Domingo in the Caribbean Sea in February 1806. He went on to be commanding officer of the sloopHMS Kingfisher and took part in the blockade of Rochefort. He became commanding officer of the sloop HMS Aurora in the Mediterranean Squadron in June 1806 and, having been promoted to captain on 29 July 1806, he was given command of the fifth-rate HMS Pallas in February 1808. In HMS Pallas he fought under Admiral Lord Gambier at the Battle of the Basque Roads in April 1809. In the summer of 1809 he was called as a witness at the Court-martial of James, Lord Gambier which assessed whether Gambier had failed to support Captain Lord Cochrane at the battle. Gambier was controversially cleared of all charges. He went on to be commanding officer of the fifth-rate HMS Manilla in September 1809.

    Seymour became commanding officer of the fifth-rate HMS Fortunée in June 1812 and of the fifth-rate HMS Leonidas in January 1813 during the War of 1812. In HMS Leonidas he captured the privateer USS Paul Jones in May 1813. He was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath on 4 June 1815. He became Serjeant-at-Arms to the House of Lords in 1818 and was given a short leave of absence to undertake a tour as commanding officer of the fifth-rate HMS Briton on "particular service" in 1827. He was appointed a Knight Commander of the Royal Guelphic Order in 1831, awarded a British knighthood on 23 March 1831 and advanced to Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Guelphic Order on 9 December 1834. In June 1837 he attended the funeral of King William IV, Seymour's last act as Master of the Robes to the King.

    Senior command.



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    French Admiral Abel Thouars's squadron arriving in Tahiti

    Seymour was appointed Third Naval Lord in the Second Peel ministry in September 1841. Promoted to rear admiral on 23 November 1841, he became Commander-in-Chief Pacific Station, with his flag in the third-rate HMS Collingwood, in May 1844. Later that year the French Admiral Abel Thouars entered into a confrontation with Queen Pōmare IV of Tahiti and with the English missionary and consul George Pritchard, expelling the consul and establishing a French protectorate over the territory: this matter became known as the "Pritchard Affair", a business which Seymour handled tactfully avoiding a confrontation with the French Government who had already denounced Thouars' actions. Tensions with United States were high as a result of the Oregon boundary dispute and Seymour avoided inflaming this situation in discussions over fisheries.



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    Eaton Square in London: Seymour lived at No. 115


    Promoted to vice-admiral on 27 March 1850, Seymour became Commander-in-Chief North America and West Indies Station, with his flag in the third-rate HMS Cumberland, in January 1851. He was advanced to Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath on 6 April 1852 and became Commander-in-Chief, Portsmouth, with his flag in the first-rate HMS Victory in 1856. Promoted to full admiral on 14 May 1857 and advanced to Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath on 18 May 1860, he was appointed Rear-Admiral of the United Kingdom on 16 May 1863 and Vice-Admiral of the United Kingdom on 23 September 1865. Promoted to Admiral of the Fleet on 20 November 1866, he died of bronchitis at his home at Eaton Square in London on 20 January 1870. Seymour's body was placed in a tomb, on which rests a recumbent marble sculpture of him by Victor Gleichen, at Holy Trinity Church in Arrow, not far from the Seymour family seat at Ragley Hall in Warwickshire.

    Family.

    In March 1811 Seymour married Georgiana Mary Berkeley (a daughter of Sir George Berkeley) and they had three sons (Francis Seymour, 5th Marquess of Hertford, Vice-Admiral Henry Seymour and General Lord William Seymour) and four daughters (including Laura Williamina Seymour).
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    Commander James Wooldridge.

    This is all that I could uncover about this particular Captain.


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    The Wooldridge Gold Medal 1809.


    A French Fleet of eleven sail, being blockaded by a British Fleet under Lord Gambier, in Aix Roads, an attempt was made to destroy the enemy Fleet by fire ships under the direction of Lord Cochrane. The fire

    ships were manned by volunteers from the fleet. On the night of April the 11th, 1809, Commander Wooldridge in the "Mediator" led the attack, and broke the boom placed in front of the French ships, but through his eagerness to execute his desperate undertaking in the most through manner he was blown out of his ship and terribly scorched. At daylight , seven of the French fleet were seen to be on shore, and of these, four were set on fire and destroyed. For this eminent service Commander Wooldridge was made a Post Captain, and presented with a special gold medal and chain, by the King. The Patriotic Fund also gave him a sword valued at 100 guineas, and to his Lieutenant, Clements, a sword of the value of 50 guineas.

    On the obverse of this medal is represented a fire ship breaking a boom, behind which are ships. Underneath is the date, 11th April, MDCCCIX. On the reverse is inscribed "Captain James Wooldridge led the British fire ships when four French sail of the line were burnt under their own batteries in Aix Roads." The medal is surrounded by a cable border.


    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    Captain Pitt Barnaby Greene.






    Apart from the fact that this Captain commanded the Sloop HMS Foxhound at the Basque Roads, the only further reference to him is the account below. Nothing else about his life has emerged thus far.



    While, in the early part of December, the United States' frigate Constitution, Commodore Bainbridge, and the ship-sloop Hornet, (eighteen 32-pound carronades and two long twelves,) Captain Lawrence, were waiting at St. Salvador to be joined by the Essex, an occurrence happened, which the characteristic cunning of the Americans turned greatly to their advantage.

    In the middle of November the British 20-gun post-ship (late 18-gun ship-sloop) Bonne-Citoyenne, (eighteen 32-pound carronades and two nines,) Captain Pitt Barnaby Greene, having, while coming from Rio-de-la-Plata, with half a million sterling on board, damaged herself greatly by running on shore, entered the port of St. Salvador, to land her cargo and be hove down. When the ship was keel-out, the two American ships arrived in port; and Captain Lawrence actually sent a challenge to Captain Greene, to sail out, as soon as he was ready, and fight him; Commodore Bainbridge "pledging his honour" not to interfere. The bait, however, did not take. The specie remained safe; and the American officers were obliged to content themselves with all the benefit they could reap from making a boast of the circumstance: that they did; and, to this day, the refusal of the Bonne-Citoyenne to meet the Hornet stands recorded in the American naval archives, as a proof of the former's dread, although the "superior in force", of engaging the latter.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    Lieutenant John Row Morris.

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    Was made a lieutenant in May 1795. During the late war, he commanded the Insolent gun-brig, and Pioneer schooner, from which latter vessel he was promoted to his present rank of Lieutenant Commander on the 15th June, 1814. He then became an inspecting commander of the Coast-Guard.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    Captain William Bevians.



    Son of lieutenant William Bevians, who commanded the Surprise cutter at the close of the American war, in 1783; and was drowned with his boat’s crew, and a lady passenger, in returning to the Insolente gun-brig, after receiving orders from the Prince de Bouillon, in 1801.
    Mr. William Bevians, junior; was first lieutenant of the Irresistible 74, Captain (now Sir George) Martin, at the battle off Cape St. Vincent, Feb. 14th, 1797; and obtained his present rank 8th March following. In 1801, he commanded the Earl of Oxford, hired armed ship; and in 1803, served as agent of transports, afloat. His last appointment was to the Lyra brig, of 10 guns, which vessel we find attached to the fleet under Lord Gambier at the memorable attack upon a French squadron in Aix Road, April 11th, 1809. On the following day, one of her boats was captured by two luggers, whilst employed in burning the enemy’s ships[1]. The out-pension of Greenwich Hospital was granted to Commander Bevians in April, 1823. His brother, James Montagu, is a major in the royal marines.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    Captain John Joyce. [Post-Captain of 1809.]




    Son of the late Joseph Joyce, Esq., a respectable merchant at Fordingbridge, co. Hants, by Sarah, daughter of Lieutenant Archibald Daroch.

    He was born at Fordingbridge, about 1708; and he appears to have first embarked as a midshipman on board the Monmouth 64, Captain James Alms, which formed part of the squadron that sailed from Spithead, under the orders of Commodore Johnstone, Mar. 14, 1781.


    Mr. Joyce took part in the action at Porto Praya. April 16, 1781; on which occasion the Monmouth had 6 men wounded He was also present at the capture and destruction of five Dutch East Indiamen, in Saldanha bay, on the 21st July six days later.


    The Monmouth formed part of the squadron under Sir Edward Hughes, when he encountered Mons. de Suffrein, off Pondicherry, Feb. 17, 1782; but as the enemy never advanced beyond the centre of the British line, neither she, nor any other ship a-head of the Admiral, had any material share in the action.

    On the 12th April following, another engagement took place, off the island of Ceylon, in which the Monmouth lost her main and mizen-masts, had her wheel shot away, seven guns dismounted, 45 men killed, and 102 wounded. Captain Alms also received two splinter wounds in the face; two musket-balls passed through his hat, his hair was on fire, and part of his coat shot away: in this situation he was left on the quarter-deck, with only his first Lieutenant, the Master, and Mr. Joyce, every other person quartered there having been killed or wounded.

    The next battle between Sir Edward Hughes and Mons. de Suffrein, took place off Negapatnam, July 6, 1782, on which occasion the Monmouth had 12 men wounded, the greater part of them mortally. She also bore a share in the actions off Trincomalee and Cuddalore, Sept. 3, 1782, and June 20, 1783. Her loss on those occasions amounted to 2 killed and 22 wounded.


    In Jan. 1784, the Monmouth being ordered home, Mr. Joyce was transferred into the Sultan 74, bearing the flag of Sir Edward Hughes, under whom he continued to serve until that officer’s departure for Europe, when he followed Commodore Andrew Mitchell into the Defence 74, and returned to England with him towards the close of 1785.

    Joyce was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant, May 13, 1793, being appointed to the Fox frigate, on the Newfoundland station, where he had previously been serving as a master’s-mate of the Stately 64.

    In the following Oct.. Lieutenant Joyce rejoined the Stately; and then into the Excellent 74, from which he was appointed to the Galatea 32, Captain Richard Keats, under whom he continued to serve for nearly three years; during which period he assisted at the capture and destruction of the following French men of war:

    La Révolutionnaire frigate, of 44 guns and 351 men, taken by Sir Edward Pellew’s squadron, Oct. 21, 1794. Le Jean Bart, corvette, of 26 guns and 187 men; and l’Expedition, of 16 guns and 120 men (formerly a British packet), taken by the Artois and Galatea, in April, 1795. L’Etoile, of 30 guns and 160 men, taken by the squadron under Sir John B. Warren, after an action with three large frigates, &c. the brunt of which was borne by the Galatea, Mar. 20, 1796. And l’Andromaque frigate, pierced for 48 guns, mounting 44, with a complement of 300 men, driven on shore by the Galatea, near Arcasson, and there completely destroyed by the Sylph brig, Aug. 23, 1796.


    In Mar. 1797, Lieutenant Joyce left the Galatea in order to join the Prince 98, flag-ship of Sir Roger Curtis, under whom he had served in the Queen Charlotte and Brunswick, during the Spanish and Russian armaments. From Oct. 1799 until the peace of Amiens, he served in the Ville de Paris, a first rate, successively bearing the flags of Earl St. Vincent and the Hon. William Cornwallis, on the Mediterranean and Channel stations. His promotion to the rank of Commander took place April 29, 1802.


    In May, 1803, Captain Joyce was appointed to the Discovery bomb, which was frequently sent to throw shells into Boulogne, Calais, and other French ports, during the time that he commanded her. His subsequent appointments were to the Dasher sloop of war.


    After making two or three trips to Gibraltar, Captain Joyce accompanied Rear-Admiral George Murray to the Cape of Good Hope, St. Helena, and Monte Video
    . The following is an extract of that officer’s official despatches, announcing the failure of the attempt to regain possession of Buenos Ayres, in July, 1807:


    “I have seen Captains Rowley and Joyce, who where landed with the seamen, and am happy to find two only are missing. The persevering conduct of Captains Rowley and Joyce, and the seamen under their command, merits the highest encomiums. They had to drag the cannon for miles through the swamps, and the men were always harnessed to them.”


    The Camel being broken up on her return from South America, Captain Joyce was then appointed to the Redpole brig, which vessel he continued to command until Aug. 1809, when he received a post-commission dated back to the 11th April preceding, as a reward for his intrepid and judicious conduct in Aix Roads, which is thus described by Captain E. P. Brenton:

    “After the daring Woolridge, in the Mediator, had broken the boom. Captain Joyce, in the Zephyr fire-ship, ran in, and when distant from one of the French ships of the line about two cables’ length, fired his trains, placed his people in the boat, himself and Mr. James Sedgwick Lean (master’s mate), only remaining on board, till the vessel was in flames fore and aft, when they jumped into the sea, and swam to the gig, which they reached with great difficulty. By this time the Zephyr was so close to the French ship, that she was kept off only by fire-booms, while the enemy cut their cables, and by that means avoided the danger. The batteries and all the ships at the same time kept up a constant and furious fire of shot, shells, grape, and musketry, but without doing any injury to Captain Joyce or his boat. The flood-tide, which ran strong, and the wind and sea being all against them, the boat was exposed to this fire; and what considerably increased their danger, was the explosion of another fire-vessel, just without them, which distinctly showed their position to the enemy.”




    In May, 1810, Joyce was appointed acting Captain of the Amazon frigate, and sent to co-operate with the Spanish patriots in harassing the French. Captain Joyce was thus employed for a period of nine months; and subsequently appointed, pro tempore, to the Manilla 36, in which frigate he conveyed Sir John Sherbrooke to his government at Halifax.


    on the 28th Jan. 1812, The Manilla cruising off the Texel, soundings by the pilots considered her nearer to Smith’s Knowl than the Dutch coast, it then blowing a gale of wind from the S.W., and the weather very thick, she struck on the Haak sands.

    At day-light on the morning of the 29th, Captain Joyce called a council of his officers, who unanimously agreed that no prospect of escape remained; a French ensign was then hoisted over the English. The Dutch succeeded in rescuing the whole of the survivors from destruction. Captain Joyce having seen every man off the wreck, then got into a boat, and was carried to the French squadron in the Texel. The next day he and his officers were landed and sent to Verdun, where they continued as prisoners until the conclusion of the war.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    Captain James Caulfield.




    He was made a Lieutenant in 1795, and advanced to the rank of Commander, May 7, 1804. In 1808, we find him commanding the Thunder bomb, on the Baltic station.


    On the 9th June, Captain Caulfield got under weigh from Malmo road, with seventy homeward-bound merchantmen under his protection, and the Charger, Piercer, and Turbulent gun-brigs in company. At 5-20 P.M., just as the convoy had arrived abreast of the south end of Saltholm, the wind died away, and the Danish gun-boats, always on the alert, came out to the number of 25, and commenced an attack upon the Turbulent, Lieutenant George Wood, whose station was in the rear. As the flotilla approached, the Turbulent opened a fire from her carronades, and the Thunder threw shells and one-pound balls from her mortars; but the Charger and Piercer were at too great a distance to co-operate. At 5-40, the Turbulent’s main-top-mast fell; and she was shortly afterwards boarded.


    At 6 o’clock, having secured their prize, the Danes formed on both quarters and astern of the Thunder, and kept up, as they rapidly advanced, a very heavy fire. The British bomb then got her two long 6-pounders out of the stern ports, and returned the fire both from them and from the broadside carronades, as the latter could be brought to bear. At 10-10 P.M. finding they could not induce Captain Caulfield to haul down his colours, the enemy ceased firing, and retired with twelve or thirteen vessels, which they had been enabled to capture. We have no means of showing the loss, if any, sustained by the Thunder; but we find that, for his gallant defence, her commander received the public approbation of Sir James Saumarez, K.B.; and that the merchants at Lloyd’s, connected with the Baltic trade, presented him with 100 guineas to purchase a piece of plate.


    After the retreat of the Russian fleet into Rogerswick, Captain Caulfield was ordered to bombard that port, which he did for a fortnight, but without producing any visible effect, until one of his shells fell into a magazine, and caused a tremendous explosion. Sir James Saumarez, seeing that the strength of the place forbade a nearer approach, or more vigorous attack with his squadron, recalled the Thunder, whose destruction he supposed inevitable, unless speedily removed, the shot and shells of the enemy falling thick about her. Captain Caulfield being regardless of the signal of recall, the commander-in-chief sent an officer to desire he would move out of gun-shot; but he gallantly returned for answer, that “as he conceived his position was a good one, he hoped the Admiral would permit him to remain a little longer!”


    On the 20th and 24th April, 1809, the Thunder was employed bombarding the Regulus, a French 74, then lying aground on a shoal at the entrance of the Charente, but which ship afterwards got afloat, and made her escape to Rochefort. Although not present at the previous attack made upon the enemy’s squadron at Aix Roads, Captain Caulfield was included in the promotion that took place after Lord Gambler’s trial, and his post commission dated back to the 11th April. In the following year we find him commanding the Cornwallis frigate, and assisting at the reduction of the Isle of France.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    Lieutenant Henry Wildey.


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    Obtained a lieutenant’s commission in 1797; and commanded the Whiting schooner, fitted for throwing rockets, at the attack made upon the French squadron in the road of Isle d’Aix, April 11th, 1809.

    He was advanced to the rank of Commander on the 3d May, 1810.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    Master's Mate Edward Tapley.





    On 1 January 1809 Nimrod was under the command of Master's Mate Edward Tapley and shared in the proceeds of the recapture of the ship Crawford by Amazon.



    In April 1809 Tapley served at the Battle of the Basque Roads.

    William Congreve, who had arrived with a transport, fitted Whiting, Nimrod and the other hired armed cutter, King George, with rockets. On 11 April the three vessels took up a position near the Boyard Shoal (see Fort Boyard) while fireships made a night attack on the French ships. The next day all three, together with a number of other vessels, opened fire upon Océan, Régulus, and the frigate Indienne, as those ships lay aground. The first two eventually escaped, and the last was one of four eventually destroyed, though by her own crew some days later to avoid capture.

    In 1847 the surviving members of the crews of all the British vessels at the battle qualified for the Naval General Service Medal with clasp "Basque Roads 1809".

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    On 9 November 1809 Nimrod and the hired armed cutter Adrian were among the vessels that shared in Snapper's capture of the French brig Modeste. Around the end of December, Nimrod, under the command of Tapley, recaptured the ship Elshon.
    Last edited by Bligh; 06-15-2019 at 02:42.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

  19. #19
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    Admiral Lord Gambier.


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    Born the second son of John Gambier, the Lieutenant Governor of the Bahamas and Deborah Stiles, a Bermudian, Gambier was brought up in England by his aunt, Margaret Gambier, and her husband, Admiral Charles Middleton, 1st Baron Barham. He was a nephew of Vice-Admiral James Gambier and of Admiral Lord Barham and became an uncle of the novelist and travel writer Georgiana Chatterton.

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    The third-rate HMS Defence, commanded by Gambier, at the Glorious First of June in 1794

    Gambier entered the Navy in 1767 as a midshipman on board the third-rateHMS Yarmouth, commanded by his uncle, which was serving as a guardship in the Medway, and followed him to serve on board the 60-gun fourth-rateHMS Salisbury in 1769 where he served on the North American Station. He transferred to the 50-gun fourth-rate HMS Chatham under Rear Admiral Parry, in 1772, in the Leeward Islands. Gambier was placed on the sloopHMS Spy and was then posted to England to serve on the 74-gun third-rate HMS Royal Oak, a guardship at Spithead. He was commissioned as a lieutenant on 12 February 1777, in which rank he served successively in the sloop Shark, the 24-gun frigateHMS Hind, the third-rate HMS Sultan under Vice-Admiral Lord Shuldham, and then in HMS Ardent under his uncle's flag. Lord Howe promoted Gambier to commander on 9 March 1778 and gave him command of the bomb shipHMS Thunder, which was promptly dismasted and surrendered to the French. He was taken prisoner for a short period and, after having been exchanged, he was made a post captain on 9 October 1778 and appointed to the 32-gun fifth-rateHMS Raleigh and saw action at the capture of Charleston in May 1780 during the American Revolutionary War. He was appointed commander of fifth-rate HMS Endymion, cruising in British waters, later in the year. In 1783, at the end of the War, he was placed on half-pay.

    In February 1793 following the start of the French Revolutionary Wars, Gambier was appointed to command the 74-gun third-rate HMS Defence under Lord Howe. By faith an evangelical, he was regarded as an intensely religious man, nicknamed Dismal Jimmy, by the men under his command. As captain of the Defence Gambier saw action at the battle of the Glorious First of June in 1794, gaining the distinction of commanding the first ship to break through the enemy line and subsequently receiving the Naval Gold Medal.

    Senior command.


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    Gambier commanded the British fleet during the bombardment of Copenhagen

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    Iver Grove, Gambier's home in Buckinghamshire

    Gambier was appointed to the Board of Admiralty led by Earl Spencer in March 1795. Promoted to rear-admiral on 1 June 1795, he became First Naval Lord in November 1795. Promoted to vice-admiral on 14 February 1799, Gambier left the Admiralty after the fall of the first Pitt ministry in February 1801 and became third-in-command of the Channel Fleet under Admiral William Cornwallis, with his flag in the 98-gun second-rateHMS Neptune. He went on to be governor and commander-in-chief of Newfoundland Station in March 1802. In that capacity he gave property rights over arable land to local people allowing them to graze sheep and cattle there and also ensured that vacant properties along the shore could be leased to local people. It was around that time that he also bought Iver Grove in Buckinghamshire.

    Gambier then returned to the Admiralty as a Lord Commissioner of the Admiralty and First Naval Lord on the Admiralty Board led by Viscount Melville when the second Pitt ministry was formed in May 1804. Promoted to full admiral on 9 November 1805, Gambier left the Admiralty in February 1806. He returned briefly for a third tour as First Naval Lord on the Admiralty Board led by Lord Mulgrave when the Second Portland Ministry was formed in April 1807.

    In May 1807 Gambier volunteered to command the naval forces, with his flag in the second-rate HMS Prince of Wales, sent as part of the campaign against Copenhagen during the Napoleonic Wars. Together with General Lord Cathcart, he oversaw the bombardment of Copenhagen from 2 September until the Danes capitulated after three days (an incident that brought Gambier some notoriety in that the assault included a bombardment of the civilian quarter). Prizes included eighteen ships of the line, twenty-one frigates and brigs and twenty-five gunboats together with a large quantity of naval stores for which he received official thanks from Parliament, and on 3 November 1807 a peerage, becoming Baron Gambier, of Iver in the County of Buckingham.

    Battle of the Basque Roads.

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    Destruction of the French fleet at the Battle of the Basque Roads

    In 1808 Gambier was appointed to command the Channel Fleet. In April 1809 he chased a squadron of French ships that had escaped from Brest into the Basque Roads. He called a council of war in which Lord Cochrane was given command of the inshore squadron, and who subsequently led the attack. Gambier refused to commit the Channel Fleet after Cochrane's attack, using explosion vessels that encouraged the French squadron to warp further into the shallows of the estuary. This action resulted in the majority of the French fleet running aground at Rochefort.


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    A satirical print depicting Gambier and Cochrane during the Battle of Basque Roads; Gambier is shown reading the Bible, ignoring Cochrane's request to pursue the French fleet

    Gambier was content with the blockading role played by the offshore squadron. Admiral Sir Eliab Harvey, who had commanded "Fighting Temeraire" at the Battle of Trafalgar, believed they had missed an opportunity to inflict further damage upon the French fleet. He told Gambier "I never saw a man so unfit for the command of a fleet as Your Lordship." Cochrane threatened to use his parliamentary vote against Gambier in retaliation for not committing the fleet to action. Gambier called for a court martial to examine his conduct. The court martial, on 26 July 1809 on Gladiator in Portsmouth, exonerated Gambier. Consequently, neither Harvey nor Cochrane were appointed by the Admiralty to command for the remainder of the war. The episode had political and personal overtones. Gambier was connected by family and politics to the Tory prime minister William Pitt. In Parliament, Cochrane represented the constituency of Westminster, which tended to vote Radical. In the aftermath of Basque Roads, Cochrane and Gambier quarreled and Gambier resentfully excluded Cochrane from the battle dispatches. There is little wonder that Cochrane took the unusual move of standing in opposition to parliament's pro forma vote of thanks to Gambier.

    Later career.

    In 1814 Gambier was part of the team negotiating the Treaty of Ghent, ending the War of 1812 between Britain and the United States. He was appointed a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath on 7 June 1815. Promoted to Admiral of the Fleet on 22 July 1830, he died at his home, Iver Grove in Buckinghamshire, on 19 April 1833 and was buried at St. Peter's churchyard in Iver.



    Last edited by Bligh; 06-28-2019 at 02:11.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    Admiral Sir Harry Burrard-Neale, 2nd Baronet GCBGCMG .


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    (born Burrard; 16 September 1765 – 7 February 1840) was a
    British officer of the Royal Navy, and Member of Parliament for Lymington.
    He was the son of William Burrard, the governor of
    Yarmouth Castle on the Isle of Wight, and nephew of Sir Harry Burrard, 1st Baronet, of Walhampton, whom he succeeded in 1791. In 1795, he adopted the additional name of Neale on his marriage to Grace, daughter of Robert Neale of Shaw House, Wiltshire. He died without issue in 1840 and was succeeded by his brother George.


    Naval career.

    Educated at Christchurch Grammar School, Burrard joined the
    Royal Navy in 1778. He was present at the Siege of Charleston in 1780.

    Burrard distinguished himself during the
    Mutiny at the Nore in 1797. He was one of the Lords of the Admiralty between 1804 and 1807, and was promoted to rear-admiral on 31 July 1810. He was engaged at the Action of 13 March 1806 in HMS London. He was invested as a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath on 2 January 1815, and advanced to a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath on 14 September 1822.

    He became
    Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Fleet in 1823, which led to his appointment as a Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George the following year.

    In the summer of 1809 he was called as a witness at the
    Court-martial of James, Lord Gambier which assessed whether Admiral Lord Gambier had failed to support Captain Lord Cochrane at the Battle of Basque Roads in April 1809. Gambier was controversially cleared of all charges.

    Political career.

    He was Member of Parliament for Lymington between 1790 and 1802, 1806 to 1807, 1812 to 1823 and 1832 to 1835. He was a
    Groom of the Bedchamber to King George III from 1801 to 1812, continuing afterwards at Windsor from 1812 to 1820 during the Regency.

    He died at age 74 and was buried in Lymington Church,
    Lymington, Hampshire, England.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

  21. #21
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    Captain William Bedford.

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    (c. 1764 – October 1827) was an officer of the Royal Navy. He served during the American War of Independence and the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.

    Biography.

    He was made a lieutenant in the navy on 12 September 1781. Of his earlier appointments there is no published record; but he served during the Russian armament of 1791 as a lieutenant of HMS Edgar. He was afterwards in HMS Formidable, and in May 1794 was first-lieutenant of HMS Queen, carrying the flag of Rear-Admiral Alan Gardner during the Atlantic campaign of May 1794 and the Glorious First of June. In the partial action of 29 May the captain of the Queen, John Hutt, was severely wounded. Bedford had thus the honour of commanding the Queen on 1 June, and for his service on that memorable day was, on the captain's death some weeks afterwards, posted into the vacancy, on 15 August 1794. He continued in the Queen with Sir Alan Gardner, and was present with the fleet under Admiral Lord Bridport at the Battle of Groix on 23 June 1795.

    Afterwards he moved with Sir Alan to HMS Royal Sovereign, and continued with him until he struck his flag in August 1800. Bedford was then appointed to the 68-gun HMS Leyden, in the North Sea, and was present at the raids on Boulogne on 15 August 1801, on which occasion he offered to serve as a volunteer under the junior officer in command of the boats. The offer, however, was declined by Lord Nelson.

    In 1803 he was captain of the 74-gun HMS Thunderer, and in 1805, in HMS Hibernia, flagship of his old chief, now Lord Gardner, commanding the blockade of Brest. Afterwards, in 1809, he was flag-captain in HMS Caledonia with Lord Gambier, at the Battle of the Basque Roads, from which, though he escaped blameless, it was impossible to derive any credit. He attained flag-rank on 12 August 1812, and served in the North Sea under Sir William Young as captain of the fleet. He had no further service, though on 19 July 1821 he was promoted to the rank of vice-admiral.
    In 1808 Bedford married Susan, one of the nine daughters of Captain Robert Fanshawe, commissioner of the navy at Portsmouth, and was thus a brother-in-law of Sir Thomas Byam Martin, comptroller of the navy, and of Admiral Sir Robert Stopford.

    He died in October 1827.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

  22. #22
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    Admiral Sir Robert Stopford GCBGCMG

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    (5 February 1768 – 25 June 1847), He was a distinguished officer in the
    Royal Navy whose career spanned over 60 years, from the French Revolutionary Wars to the Syrian War.


    Naval career.

    Stopford was the third son of
    James Stopford, 2nd Earl of Courtown, and his wife Mary (née Powys). He joined the Royal Navy in 1780 and became a Lieutenant in 1785. Commander Stopford was captain of Ferret between December 1789 and October 1790. In 1790 he was promoted to captain at the age of 22 and was briefly captain of HMS Lowestoffe.

    Stopford fought at the Battle of the
    Glorious First of June in 1794, commanding the frigateHMS Aquilon (32). During the battle Aquilon had the task of standing off and repeating the signals from the flagship. Aquilon also towed the Marlborough out of the line of fire when she was dismasted, for which Lord Howe thanked him personally. One of Stopford's officers on Aquilon was Francis Beaufort, the inventor of the Beaufort Wind-Scale.

    On 10 March 1796, Stopford was captain of the
    fifth rate frigate HMS Phaeton, of 38 guns, when she engaged and captured the 20-gun French corvette Bonne Citoyenne of Cape Finisterre. Stopford took her back to England as his prize. The Royal Navy then bought her in as HMS Bonne Citoyenn, a sixth rate sloop of war. During his service in the Channel, Phaeton captured in all some 13 privateers and three vessels of war, as well as recovering numerous vessels that the French had taken.

    In 1799, Stopford was appointed captain of the 74-gun
    third rateHMS Excellent in the Channel Fleet. He sailed Excellent to the West Indies where he hoisted a commodore's pennant and served for eight months as the Commander-in-Chief of the Leeward Islands Station in 1802.

    In 1803, Stopford became captain of the
    ship of the lineHMS Spencer (74), in Horatio Nelson's fleet.

    He became a Colonel of
    Marines in November 1805 and received a gold medal for his conduct at the Battle of San Domingo in 1806, while still in command of Spencer. Stopford was wounded during the battle; he recovered, but the wound would plague him for the rest of his life.

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    Admiral Sir Robert Stopford, c. 1840, by
    Frederick Richard Say, from the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London

    He took part in the
    British invasions of the Río de la Plata and Battle of Copenhagen of 1806-07, and attacked Rochefort in 1808. Stopford played an important part in the Battle of the Basque Roads. He was appointed to command HMS Caesar (80), with a squadron of two ships of the line and five frigates. On 23 February 1809 he fell in the four French frigates under the batteries of Sable d'Olonne, an action which left them disabled. Stopford continued his blockade until Lord Gambier chased a fleet of ten French sail of the line into the Basque Roads and assumed command. In the summer of 1809 he was called as a witness at the Court-martial of James, Lord Gambier which assessed whether Admiral Lord Gambier had failed to support Captain Lord Cochrane. Gambier was controversially cleared of all charges.

    In 1810, he sailed to South Africa to become Commander-in-Chief of the
    Cape of Good Hope Station. He directed the operations that resulted in the capture of Java when on 8 August 1811, the Dutch settlement of Batavia capitulated to the British under Stopford and Lieutenant-General Sir Samuel Auchmuty. The British fleet consisted of some 100 vessels, including eight cruisers belonging to the East India Company. He was appointed Commander-in-Chief, Portsmouth in 1827.


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    HMS Phoenix at the
    bombardment of Acre


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    The Officers Monument, Greenwich Hospital Cemetery

    Stopford became
    Rear-Admiral of the United Kingdom in 1834. His last active post, in his early seventies, was as commander-in-chief of the Mediterranean fleet during the Syrian War against the forces of Mehemet Ali. As Vice Admiral on board HMS Princess Charlotte (100) and subsequently HMS Phoenix, he was in command of the combined British, Turkish, and Austrian fleet during the bombardment of Acre on 3 November 1840. For his services in the Syrian War, Stopford was given the Freedom of the City of the City of London and presented with a commemorative "freedom box". The ornate silver and oak box is part of the collection of the National Maritime Museum, Greenwich. The following year he became Governor of the Greenwich Hospital at Greenwich, with the rank of admiral.

    He is buried in Greenwich Hospital Cemetery. The cemetery was largely made into a pocket park in the late 19th century but his name is listed on the west face of the Officers in the centre of the park.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

  23. #23
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    Captain Charles Richardson.

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    Sir Charles Richardson entered the Navy, 23 Nov. 1787, as Captain’s Servant, on board the Vestal 28, Capt. Rich. John Strachan.

    He shortly afterwards proceeded on an embassy to China, and, on removing with Sir Richard to the Phoenix 36, was present, 19 Nov. 1791, while cruising off the Malabar coast in company with the Perseverance frigate, in an obstinate engagement (produced by a resistance on the part of the French Captain to a search being imposed by the British upon two merchant- vessels under his orders) with La Résolue of 46 guns, whose colours were not struck until she had herself sustained a loss of 25 men killed and 40 wounded, and had occasioned one to the Phoenix of 6 killed and 11 wounded.

    While on the East India station Mr. Richardson was for several months employed in the boats in co-operating, up different rivers, with the army under Sir Robt. Abercrombie in its operations against Tippoo Saib.

    On his return to England in 1793 he joined (he had previously attained the ratings of Midshipman and Master’s Mate) the Alexander 74, Capt. West, attached to the Channel fleet; and on 4 Aug. 1794, after having fought in the Royal George 100, flagship of Sir Alex. Hood, in Lord Howe’s actions of 29 May and 1 June, he was made Lieutenant into the Circe 28, Capt. Peter Halkett.

    On that frigate he was First-Lieutenant during the great mutiny at the Nore; where his exertions in preventing the crew from acquiring the ascendancy gained him, in common with his Captain and the other officers of the ship, the thanks of the Admiralty.

    The Circe forming one of Lord Duncan’s repeaters in the action off Camperdown 11 Oct. 1797, Lieut. Richardson on that occasion achieved an important exploit. Fearing lest the Dutch Admiral, De Winter, after his own ship had been dismasted and silenced, should effect his escape on board some other, he volunteered to go in an open boat and take him out.

    Succeeding in his object he had the honour of presenting him in person to the British Commander-in-Chief; who in consequence received him on promotion in Jan. 1798 on board his flagship the Venerable 74, and made him, 6 March following, his Signal-Lieutenant in the Kent 74, Capt. Wm. Johnstone Hope.

    In the following year, being sent with the expedition to Holland, Lieut. Richardson commanded a division of seamen attached to the army under Sir Ralph Abercromby from the period of the debarkation near the Helder until the surrender of the Dutch squadron under Admiral Storey. He was then ordered home in charge of a Dutch 68-gun ship.

    Some time after he had rejoined the Kent he sailed with Sir Ralph Abercromby for Egypt, where he assisted in landing the troops and fought in the battle of 8 March, 1801. In the course of the same month he removed to the Penelope 36, Capt. Hon. Henry Blackwood; and on 12 July, 1802, having previously conveyed Sir Alex. John Ball to Malta, he was nominated Acting-Commander of the Aligator 28, armée en flûte.

    While in that ship, to which he was confirmed 9 Oct. 1802, Capt. Richardson directed the movements of the flotilla employed at the reduction of Demerara, Essequibo, and Berbice in 1803, and was highly spoken of in the public despatches for his exertions at the taking of Surinam in the spring of 1804.] On 6 July in that year he was in consequence invested by Sir Samuel Hood with the command of the Centaur 74, the ship bearing his broad pendant, an act which the Admiralty confirmed 27 Sept. ensuing.

    He returned to England in March, 1805; and was subsequently appointed – 11 Jan. 1806, to the Caesar 80 – 21 April, 1810, In the Caesar Capt. Richardson went in pursuit, under the flag of Sir Rich. Strachan, of a squadron which had escaped from Brest, was employed off Rochefort, and proceeded to the Mediterranean in quest of another French squadron under Rear-Admiral Allemand.

    He assisted in the same ship under Rear-Admiral Stopford at the destruction of three French frigates beneath the batteries of Sable d’Olonne, and of the enemy’s squadron in Aix Roads, in Feb. and April 1809; and in the following July sailed, again under Sir Rich. Strachan, with the expedition to the Scheldt. On the town of Camvere offering to surrender, Capt. Richardson, who was the senior naval officer at the time on shore, arranged with Lieutenant-General Fraser the terms upon which the proposal was accepted. During the investment of Flushing he landed at the head of a brigade of seamen, and commanded a battery of 6 24-pounders with much effect. His services throughout the operations were so important and his zeal and bravery so very conspicuous that he elicited the public praise of the Earl of Chatham, the Military Commander-in-Chief, and the high approbation of Lieutenant-General Sir Eyre Coote, who conducted the siege, and of Major-General M‘Leod, commanding officer of the Royal Artillery.

    On 25 Aug. 1811, being at the mouth of the river Gironde in the Semiramis and in company with the Diana 38, Capt. Richardson, while his consort was engaged with the (lately British) gun-brig Teazer of 12 18-pounder carronades, 2 long 18’s, and 85 men, succeeded, “in a manner that characterized the officer and seaman,” in driving on shore, and burning under the guns of the batteries at Royan, Le Pluvier national brig of 16 guns and 136 men. In consideration of this exploit he received the “warmest acknowledgments” of his senior officer, Capt.Wm. Ferris, of the Diana, and the thanks of the Board of Admiralty. The Semiramis afterwards made a large number of prizes, and among them the Grand Jean Bart privateer of 14 guns and 106 men.
    He remained in the Semiramis 36, employed in the Channel, off Lisbon, and at the Cape of Good Hope, until Aug. 1814 – 29 July, 1819, and 29 July, 1821, then to the Leander 60, bearing the flag of Hon. Sir H. Blackwood, and Topaze 46, both on the East India station – and, in 1822, again to the Leander, from which ship he invalided out 14 Oct. in the same year.

    During Capt. Richardson’s command of the Topaze a dispute arose between him and the authorities at Canton, which, before it could be adjusted, became so serious, that all commercial intercourse was suspended, the British factory obliged to embark without passes, and the Hon. Company’s ships to leave the Tigris. The disturbances had their origin in the circumstance of a fire from the Topaze having killed 2 out of a number of Chinese who had severely wounded 14 of her crew while employed filling water at Lintin.

    On 4 June, 1815, Capt. Richardson was nominated a C.B.; and on 29 June, 1841, a K.C.B. He became a Rear-Admiral 10 Jan. 1837; and a Vice-Admiral 17 Dec. 1847.

    He died on Nov 10 1850.

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    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

  24. #24
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    Captain Henry Lidgbird Ball.

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    The son of George Ball, gentleman, and his wife Lucy, he was baptised on 7 December 1756 at Woodchurch, Cheshire.

    Career.

    In 1788, having previously commanded HMS Supply as part of the First Fleet voyaging to Australia, Lieutenant Ball commanded the vessel entrusted with shipping the first group of settlers from Botany Bay to Norfolk Island.

    Between 1788 and 1790, Ball explored the area around Port Jackson and took part in the capture of the Aborigine, Arabanoo, on 31 December 1788, in addition to revisiting Lord Howe's Island, as it was then known, and Norfolk Island.

    After falling ill in January 1791, Ball returned to England to convalesce. Leaving Australia in November 1791, he landed at Plymouth in April 1792 with the first kangaroo to be shipped to England on board his ship.

    Ball returned to duty in December 1792 and was made a captain in 1795, in which position he served with distinction between 1795 and 1812, commanding HMS Daedalus at the Action of 9 February 1799 and capturing the French frigate Prudente. In 1812 he went onto half pay in semi-retirement.

    In the summer of 1809 he was called as a witness at the Court-martial of James, Lord Gambier which assessed whether Admiral Lord Gambier had failed to support Captain Lord Cochrane at the Battle of Basque Roads in April 1809. Gambier was controversially cleared of all charges.

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    On 4 June 1814 he was promoted to flag rank as Rear-Admiral of the Blue.

    Personal life.

    During his time in Australia, Ball had a relationship with Sarah Partridge (also known as Mary Stokes), a convict who had been transported by the First Fleet in the Lady Penrhyn. They had a daughter, Anne Maria (born 1789).
    On 17 June 1802 Ball married Charlotte Foster in London; she died a year later. On 19 July 1810, at Kingston upon Thames, he married Anne Georgianna Henrietta Johnston, who was 31 years younger than he was: she survived him and died in 1864.

    Death and legacy.

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    Tomb at Petersham.

    He died on 22 October 1818 at Mitcham (then in Surrey and now in Greater London). He was buried in the churchyard at St Peter's Church, Petersham, in the family vault of his wife Anne Georgianna Henrietta Johnston. A commemorative plaque marking Ball was added to the Johnston tomb on 20 October 2013 at a service attended by the Australian High Commissioner to the United Kingdom.

    Ball's Pyramid, Mount Lidgbird, Ball Bay on Norfolk Island and (possibly) Balls Head on Sydney Harbour are all named after him.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

  25. #25
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    Captain James Newman-Newman.

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    Captain James Newman-Newman (1767–1811) of the British Royal Navy was an officer who served in numerous actions with distinction during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars before his death in the wreck of his ship of the line HMS Hero, which was lost with two other battleships off the Northern European coast during a storm in December 1811. Over 2,000 sailors lost their lives.


    Career.

    Newman-Newman was born in 1767, and joined the Royal Navy at a young age, serving as a lieutenant aboard the flagship of Sir Alexander Hood, HMS Royal George during the battle of the Glorious First of June, when a French fleet was defeated deep in the Atlantic by the British Channel Fleet under Lord Howe. Due to good service in this action, Newman-Newman was promoted to captain and took command of a succession of frigates in the Mediterranean and home waters, beginning with HMS Ceres in 1795.

    On 21 March 1796, the sloop HMS Lark, under William Ogilvy, joined the Ceres and Newman-Newman in providing support to an unsuccessful attack by British troops from Port-au-Prince on the town and fort of Léogane on the island of Hispaniola.

    In 1798, Newman-Newman was in command of the frigate HMS Mermaid during the campaign against a French fleet which threatened to invade Ireland. The French force was destroyed at the Battle of Tory Island, in which Mermaid was not engaged, but the surviving French ships scattered into the Atlantic and Mermaid was one of the ships tasked with tracking them. On 15 October, Mermaid, in company with the brig HMS Kangaroo discovered the French frigate Loire and gave chase, catching and engaging the French ship.
    Loire was too strong for her opponents, however, and despite suffering heavy damage, managed to escape. The following day Loire was captured by the large razee HMS Anson, having suffered heavy casualties. Mermaid had taken 17 casualties herself and Newman-Newman was praised for his conduct.

    Two years later, Newman-Newman was again involved in the capture of a French frigate, this time as captain of HMS Loire, the same ship he had captured two years previously. The French Pallas had been sighted off St Malo by two small Royal Navy ships and, despite the disparity in size, the small craft engaged the much larger frigate. Pallas was able to hold off her diminutive opponents, but in the afternoon of 5 February 1800 a squadron led by Newman-Newman in Loire arrived. In the engagement which followed, the five British ships fought a lengthy battle with Pallas and French shore batteries under which the frigate was sheltering until eventually Pallas surrendered. Loire had suffered 22 casualties.

    In 1802, Newman-Newman was briefly in reserve during the Peace of Amiens, but he soon returned to service as commander of a ship of the line following the resumption of the Napoleonic Wars the following year. In the summer of 1809, he was called as a witness at the Court-martial of James, Lord Gambier which assessed whether Admiral Lord Gambier had failed to support Captain Lord Cochrane at the Battle of Basque Roads in April 1809. Gambier was controversially cleared of all charges.
    Newman-Newman's service was next in Home Waters and the Baltic Sea. In 1811 he was tasked with escorting a large convoy from Gothenburg to London in his ship HMS Hero. Returning in late 1811, the convoy, which had joined with parts of the British Baltic Fleet, was struck by a huge storm which wrecked over 30 merchant ships and on 24 December claimed the flagship HMS St George and HMS Defence. Hundreds of sailors were drowned including Admiral Robert Carthew Reynolds. The next day, Christmas Day 1811, HMS Hero was also driven ashore, onto the Haak Sands off the Texel. Weather conditions were so severe that no boats could be launched and no rescue attempted and as a result only 12 men from a crew of several hundred reached safety. Newman-Newman was not among them.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

  26. #26
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    Captain Pulteney Malcolm.

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    Admiral Sir Pulteney Malcolm GCB GCMG (20 February 1768 – 20 July 1838) was a British naval officer. He was born at Douglas, near Langholm, Scotland, on 20 February 1768, the third son of George Malcolm of Burnfoot, Langholm, in Dumfriesshire, a sheep farmer, and his wife Margaret, the sister of Admiral Sir Thomas Pasley. His brothers were Sir James Malcolm, Sir John Malcolm, and Sir Charles Malcolm.

    1778–1793, Midshipman to Lieutenant.

    He entered the navy in 1778, during the American Revolutionary War, on the books of the Sibyl, commanded by his uncle, Captain Pasley. With Pasley he afterwards served in the Jupiter, in the squadron under Commodore George Johnstone, and was present at the action in Porto Praya and at the capture of the Dutch Indiamen in Saldanha Bay. In 1782 the Jupiter carried out Admiral Pigot to the West Indies. Malcolm was thus brought under the admiral's notice, was taken by him into the flagship, and some months later, on 3 March 1783, was promoted to be lieutenant of the Jupiter.

    He continued serving during the peace, and in 1793, at the beginning of the French Revolutionary Wars, was first lieutenant of the Penelope frigate on the Jamaica stationn, under the command of Captain Bartholomew Rowley. The Penelope's service was peculiarly active. In company with the Iphigenia she captured the French frigate Inconstante, on the coast of San Domingo, on 25 November 1793; she captured or cut out many privateers or merchant vessels; and Malcolm, as first lieutenant, commanded her boats in several sharp conflicts.

    1794–1804, Post-Captain.

    Early in 1794 Commodore Ford took him into his flagship the Europa, and on 3 April promoted him to the command of the Jack Tar, which he took to England. On 22 October he was posted, and a few days later appointed to the Fox frigate. In February 1795 he convoyed a fleet of merchant ships to the Mediterranean; thence he went to Quebec, and afterwards was employed for some time in the North Sea. Later on he was sent out to the East Indies, and towards the end of 1797 into the China Seas, under the command of Captain Edward Cooke, in whose company he entered Manila Bay under false colours, on 14 January 1798 in the bloodless Raid on Manila, and carried off three Spanish gunboats. After some further cruising among the islands the Fox returned to India, where, on 18 June, Malcolm was appointed by Rear-Admiral Rainier to be his flag captain in the Suffolk, and afterwards in the Victorious. He continued to serve in this capacity during the war. On her homeward passage, in 1803, the Victorious proved exceedingly leaky, and, meeting with heavy weather in the North Atlantic, was with difficulty kept afloat till she reached the Tagus, where she was run ashore and broken up. Malcolm, with the officers and crew, returned to England in two vessels which he chartered at Lisbon.

    1804–1805, Battle of Trafalgar.

    In February 1804 Malcolm went out to the Mediterranean in the Royal Sovereign, in which, on her arrival, Sir Richard Bickerton hoisted his flag, and Malcolm was appointed to the Kent, then with Nelson blockading Toulon. He was, however, almost immediately sent to Naples, where, or in the neighbourhood, he remained during the year. His transfer to the Renown in July did not change his station. It was not till the beginning of 1805 that he was permitted to rejoin the flag, and to exchange into the Donegal, in time to take part in the celebrated pursuit of the French fleet to the West Indies (see Horatio Nelson). On the return of the fleet to the Channel, the Donegal, with others, was sent to reinforce Collingwood off Cadiz, and was still there when Nelson resumed the command on 28 September.

    On 17 October Donegal was sent to Gibraltar for water and a hurried refit. On the 20th Malcolm learnt that the combined fleet was coming out of Cadiz. His ship was then in the Mole, nearly dismantled; but by the greatest exertions he got her out that night, and on the 22nd she sailed from Gibraltar with her foreyard towing alongside. It was blowing a gale from the westward, but she succeeded in getting through the Straits, and on the morning of the 24th rejoined the fleet, too late for the Battle of Trafalgar, fought on the 21st, but in time to render most valuable assistance to the disabled ships and more disabled prizes. She captured the Rayo, which had made a sally from Cadiz on the 23rd; and in the night of the 24th, when some of the prisoners on board the French ship Berwick cut the cable and let her go on shore, on which she almost immediately broke up, the Donegal's boats succeeded in saving a considerable number of her men. She afterwards took charge of the Spanish prize Bahama, and brought her to Gibraltar. Writing to Sir Thomas Pasley on 16 December Collingwood said:

    "Everybody was sorry Malcolm was not there [sc. at Trafalgar], because everybody knows his spirit, and his skill would have acquired him honour. He got out of the Gut when nobody else could, and was of infinite service to us after the action."

    1806–1816, Captain to Rear-admiral.

    The Donegal continued off to cruise off Cadiz till the close of the year, when she sailed for the West Indies with Sir John Duckworth, and took an important part in the battle of San Domingo, 6 February 1806. Malcolm was afterwards sent home in charge of the prizes, and in a very heavy gale rescued the crew of the Brave as she was on the point of foundering. He received the gold medal for St. Domingo, and was presented by the Patriotic Fund with a vase valued at a hundred guineas. In 1808 he was engaged in convoying troops to the Peninsula, and in 1809, still in the Donegal, was attached to the Channel Fleet, then commanded by Lord Gambier, and took part in the battle of the Basque Roads. In the summer of 1809 he was called as a witness at the Court-martial of James, Lord Gambier which assessed whether Gambier had failed to support Captain Lord Cochrane at the battle. Gambier was controversially cleared of all charges. In November 1810 Malcolm led an attack on a French frigate squadron anchored at Saint-Vaast-la-Hougue at the Action of 15 November 1810, which ultimately led to the destruction of the Elisa.

    The Donegal was paid off in 1811, and Malcolm was appointed to the Royal Oak, which he commanded off Cherbourg till March 1812, when he accepted the post of captain of the fleet to Lord Keith, his uncle by marriage. He was promoted to be rear-admiral on 4 December 1813, but remained with Keith till June 1814, when, with his flag in the Royal Oak, he convoyed a detachment of the army from Bordeaux to North America, and served during the war with the United States as third in command under Sir Alexander Cochrane and Rear-admiral (afterwards Sir) George Cockburn. On 2 January 1815 he was nominated a K.C.B., and during "The Hundred Days' War" commanded a squadron in the North Sea, in co-operation with the army under the Duke of Wellington.

    1816–1838, Commander-in-chief.


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    In 1816–17 he was Commander-in-chief on the Saint Helena station, specially appointed to enforce a rigid blockade of the island and to keep a close guard on Napoleon Bonaparte. He was advanced to vice-admiral on 19 July 1821,] and Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean Fleet from 1828 to 1831. In 1832 he commanded on the coast of Holland, with the fleets of France and Spain under his orders; and in 1833–4 was again commander-in-chief in the Mediterranean. He was nominated a G.C.M.G. on 21 January 1829, and a G.C.B. on 26 April 1833.

    In the final years of his life, he became Chairman of the Oriental Club which had been founded by his brother General Sir John Malcolm.

    He attained the rank of Admiral of the Blue in 1837.

    He died at East Lodge, Enfield, London, on 20 July 1838.

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    Personal life.

    He married, on 18 January 1809, Clementina, eldest daughter of the Hon. William Fullerton Elphinstone, a director of the East India Company, and elder brother of Lord Keith.

    Memorials.

    The post-war Royal Navy frigate HMS Malcolm (F88) was named after Sir Pulteney Malcolm, as were Pulteney Street, Adelaide and Malcolm Island, British Columbia; the south-west extremity of which is named Pulteney Point.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    Captain George Burlton.

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    Rear-Admiral
    Sir George Burlton KCB (died 21 September 1815) was an officer of the Royal Navy during the Napoleonic Wars.



    Naval career.

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    National Maritime Museum uniform attributed to Burlton.


    Burlton was commissioned as a Lieutenant on 15 September 1777 and in 1783 was in command of HMS Camel, 24. He was made Commander on 5 July 1794.


    In March 1795 he was acting captain of the 32-gun frigate Lively when she captured the French corvette Tourtourelle, and he was promoted to post captain on 16 March that year into the 74-gunHMS Vengeance.Towards the end of 1796 he traveled to Cape Town. There in November he received command of the Dutch frigate Castor, which the British had captured at the capitulation of Saldanha Bay and renamed HMS Saldanha. Burlton sailed her to Britain where she was paid off.



    Subsequent commands included Success, 32; Adamant, 50; and Resolution, 74, the last of which he commanded at the Battle of the Basque Roads in April 1809.

    In the summer of 1809 he was called as a witness at the Court-martial of James, Lord Gambier which assessed whether Admiral Lord Gambier had failed to support Captain Lord Cochrane at the battle. Gambier was controversially cleared of all charges.



    In 1812 Burlton was captain of the 110-gun HMS Ville de Paris and in March 1813 he was given command of HMS Boyne, 98. On 4 December 1813 he was made a Colonel of Marines.


    On 13 February 1814 Boyne engaged the French ship-of-the-line Romulus, for which Burlton was commended by Vice-Admiral Sir Edward Pellew.On 4 June 1814 Burlton was raised to flag rank as a Rear-Admiral of the White and on 2 January 1815 he was made a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath.



    On 24 December 1814 Sir Samuel Hood died. He had been Commander-in-Chief on the East Indies Station and when the vacancy became known in England Sir George Burlton was appointed to succeed him. He hoisted his flag in HMS Cornwallis, Captain John Bayley, on 10 January 1815. On the voyage out the American sloops-of-war USS Peacock and USS Hornet mistook the 74-gun Cornwallis for a merchant ship. Cornwallis pursued Hornet between 28 and 30 April without success, though Hornet was obliged to jettison all her guns and arms in order to escape.

    Burlton took over the East Indies command from acting-Commodore
    George Sayer in June 1815, but died at Madras on 21 September. Sayer resumed command until the arrival of Sir Richard King in 1816.



    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    Captain John Poer Beresford.

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    Sir John Poo Beresford, 1st Baronet GCH (1766 – 2 October 1844) was a Royal Navy admiral, 2SL and Conservative MP.

    Naval career.

    Beresford, an illegitimate son of George and a brother of William, joined the Royal Navy in 1782.

    In summer 1809, he was called as a witness at the Court-martial of James, Lord Gambier which assessed whether Admiral Lord Gambier had failed to support Captain Lord Cochrane at the Battle of Basque Roads in April 1809. Gambier was controversially cleared of all charges.

    During the War of 1812, as captain of HMS Poictiers, he ineptly bombarded Lewes in Delaware. The Beresford-led Poictiers-four hours after USS Wasp, commanded by Jacob Jones, captured HMS Frolic-captured Wasp, recaptured Frolic and brought both to Bermuda. Later, he was Commanders-in-Chief of Leith Station (1821–25) and The Nore (1830-33).

    He was MP for Coleraine 1809–12 & 1814–23, Berwick-upon-Tweed 1823–26, Northallerton 1826–32, and Chatham 1835–37.
    Beresford was knighted in 1812, and baroneted - Bagnall County Waterford in 1814 (see here).

    Family.

    In 1809 Beresford married Mary Molloy, the daughter of Captain Anthony James Pye Molloy; they had a son, George, before Mary's death in 1813. In 1815 Beresford was remarried to Harriet Elizabeth Peirse, daughter of Henry Peirce, and with her had three sons and two daughters. Harriet died in 1825, and Beresford was again married to Amelia Peach, widow of Samuel Peach and daughter of James Bailie. They had no children, and Amelia outlived him. He was succeeded in the baronetcy by his son from the first marriage, George, who, as he had no surviving sons, was later succeeded by his half-nephew.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    Captain William Robert Broughton.

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    Broughton, (22 March 1762 – 14 March 1821) was a British naval officer in the late 18th century. As a lieutenant in the Royal Navy, he commanded HMS Chatham as part of the Vancouver Expedition, a voyage of exploration through the Pacific Ocean led by Captain George Vancouver in the early 1790s.

    Personal life.



    William Robert Broughton was born on 22 March 1762. His father, Charles Broughton, was a Hamburg merchant and his mother, Anne Elizabeth, was the daughter of Baron William de Hertoghe. Broughton married his cousin, Jemima, on 26 November 1802. They had four children. On 12 March 1821, while in Florence, Broughton suffered an angina attack and died two days later. He was buried in the English burial ground in Leghorn.

    Early career.

    Broughton's name was added to the muster of the yacht Catherine on 1 May 1774, as captain's servant but Broughton first went to sea on 18 November when he joined the 10-gun brig-sloop, Falcon which sailed for North America, under the command of Captain John Linzee.

    On 14 February 1777, Broughton, by then a midshipman, transferred to Harlem under Lieutenant John Knight. He was appointed to the 64-gun Eagle on 1 July 1778, then in December he joined the seventy-four, Superb as a Master's mate and began service in the East Indies. On 12 January 1782, Broughton was promoted to Lieutenant aboard the 68-gun Burford commanded by Captain Peter Rainier. When Burford paid off on 19 July 1784, Broughton went ashore and did not serve again for almost four years.

    Broughton resumed his career on 23 June 1788, aboard the 18-gun sloop, Orestes, under Manley Dixon, serving in The Channel and later, the Mediterranean. On 13 May 1790, he moved to HMS Victory and renewed his acquaintance with John Knight, her captain. Broughton's first command came on 18 December when he was given command of the brig, Chatham and asked to accompany George Vancouver in his exploration of the north-west Pacific.[

    Vancouver Expedition.

    En route to the Pacific Northwest the expedition spent some time exploring the South Pacific and whilst sailing separately from Vancouver, in November 1791, Broughton and his crew became the first Europeans to sight both The Snares and the Chatham Islands on the 23rd and 29th respectively. The former group contains an island that still bears Broughton's name.

    Sometime after their arrival in North America, in 1792, Broughton was given the task of charting a group of islands in the Queen Charlotte Sound. In his honour, Vancouver named them the Broughton Archipelago. In October, Broughton was ordered to explore the lower stretches of the Columbia River, between present-day Oregon and Washington. With several boats from his ship, Broughton and his party navigated upstream as far as the Columbia River Gorge and on 30 October, he reached his farthest point, landing in eastern Multnomah County east of Portland and northwest of Mount Hood, which he named for Viscount Samuel Hood, Admiral of the British Fleet. Late in 1792, Vancouver, stymied by conflicting instructions over Nootka Sound, sent Broughton back to England via Mexico and the Atlantic, bearing dispatches and requesting instructions.

    Exploring Japan and Sakhalin.

    On 3 October 1793, Broughton was promoted to commander and given command of HMS Providence, a ship formerly commanded by Captain William Bligh. The fitting out caused a long delay and the ship didn't sail until February 1795 and when Broughton finally returned to north-west America, he was unable to locate Vancouver. Correctly determining that Vancouver had returned to England having completed his survey, Broughton crossed the Pacific and began a four-year survey of the Asian coast between the latitudes of 35 and 52 degrees north, which would include, the Kurile Islands, Japan, Okinawa, and Formosa.

    From September 1796 Broughton charted the east coast of Honshu and Hokkaidō before wintering at Macau where he purchased a small schooner to assist the Providence. Next year he returned to Japan where the Providence was wrecked on what was to become known as Providence Reef, now Yabiji (八重干瀬), at Miyako Island. The schooner saved the crew of the wrecked ship and they continued north along the east coast of Honshu. Passing Hokkaido, the expedition sailed north into the Gulf of Tartary along the west coast of Sakhalin. Finding extensive shallows at the north end of the gulf it was falsely concluded that Sakhalin was part of the mainland (a common mistake). Broughton turned south along the coast of Korea and then headed home by way of Trincomalee, Ceylon, where the crew was paid off and he was court-martialled for the loss of his ship. Having been acquitted, he reached England in February 1799 and shortly after began to write his book,

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    "A Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean; in which the coast of Asia, from the latitude of 35° north to the latitude of 52° north, the island of Insu (commonly known under the name of Jesso), the north, south and east coasts of Japan, the Lieuchieux and adjacent islands, as well as the coast of Corea, have been examined and surveyed, Performed in His Majesty's Sloop Providence and her tender, in the years 1795, 1796, 1797, 1798". It was published in 1804.


    Later career.

    Having been kept from the greater part of the French Revolutionary War by his book, Broughton resumed his active naval career on 23 June 1801, when he was given command of the 50-gun Batavier in The Channel. He served aboard her until the Peace of Amiens was ratified, in April 1802. In May, Broughton was given command of the 36-gun Penelope, serving in the North Sea, an appointment that lasted until two days before his next command, the seventy-four, Illustrious, on 30 May 1807.


    In her, Broughton continued service, seeing action at the Battle of the Basque Roads. After the battle, Lord Cochrane proclaimed that Admiral Gambier had not done enough to destroy the French fleet and Gambier demanded a court martial at which he was acquitted, despite Broughton speaking out against him.


    In November 1810, Broughton, still in command of Illustrious, took part in the Mauritius Campaign, joining a fleet off the island of Rodriquez, under Vice-admiral Albermarle Bertie. On 29 November, this fleet landed around 10,000 troops at Grande-Baie, north-east of Port-Louis, on the Isle de France which capitulated five days later on 3 December. In 1811, Broughton took part in the Java Expedition.



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    He was initially given command of the expedition by Admiral O'Bryen Drury the then Commander-in-Chief in the East Indies but he was relieved of his postafter Drury's death, by Admiral Robert Stopford, who had arrived from the Cape. This angered Broughton, who felt that Stopford had exceeded his authority, and who applied for a court-martial, which was ultimately rejected. The mission however was a success, the British having complete control of the island by 18 September 1811.

    Broughton resigned his commission on 23 October 1812 but was recalled on 31 May 1815 to serve in the channel as commander of the 100-gun Royal Sovereign. In August 1815 he transferred to Spencer, a seventy-four, serving as a guardship at Plymouth. On 4 June 1815, Broughton was made a Companion of The Most Honourable Order of the Bath and promoted to Colonel of the Marines on 12 March 1819.

    Death and legacy.

    Broughton died in Florence, Italy in 1821, and was buried in the Old English Cemetery, Livorno. He named many locations in the course of his explorations and has been honoured with namings as well:

    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    Captain John Bligh.

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    John Bligh CB (August 1770 – 19 January 1831) was an officer in the Royal Navy who served during the American War of Independence and the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.

    Bligh was born into a naval family and served on a variety of ships from a young age, moving up through the ranks to lieutenant prior to the outbreak of the wars with France. He was in the East Indies when war broke out, but returning to Britain he saw action in the Mediterranean during the early attacks on Corsica, the Siege of Toulon and the Battle of Cape St Vincent.

    Promoted to his own commands in 1797, he was the victim of a mutiny on his ship, when his crew joined the larger mutinies at Spithead, and was sent ashore. He returned after it had ended and went on to serve at Newfoundland, before beginning a long period of distinguished service in the Caribbean. He was active in the Blockade of Saint-Domingue after the outbreak of the Napoleonic Wars, and arranged the surrender and evacuation of several French-held positions. He then took charge of an expedition to Curaçao, but withdrew his forces in the face of heavy opposition. His final actions there involved several successes against enemy privateers and merchant shipping.

    Returning to Britain in 1806, Bligh went out with the fleet to the Baltic and was present at the Battle of Copenhagen. He then sailed to the Portuguese coast, where he was active landing troops and supporting the army's operations there.

    He was involved in the Battle of the Basque Roads in 1809, directing efforts to destroy several grounded French ships. While cruising off Belle Île in 1810 he had the good fortune to intercept a French vessel carrying the wealth of the merchants of Île de France back to France. Suddenly wealthy from the prize money and in weakening health after his long service in the tropics, Bligh retired ashore.
    He settled on the south coast, receiving an appointment as a Companion of the Bath, and a promotion to rear-admiral before his death in 1831.


    Family and early life.

    Bligh was born in Guildford in August 1770, the son of the naval officer Commander John Bligh, and his wife Elizabeth, née Titcher. He attended the Royal Grammar School, Guildford until joining the Navy on 22 January 1780, becoming a captain's servant aboard the 28-gun HMS Nemesis.] Nemesis was at this time commanded by John's uncle, Richard Rodney Bligh. After service here he was rated midshipman and moved to the 74-gun HMS Warspite on 28 August 1782. Bligh then served on a succession of ships, moving in turn to the brig-sloop HMS Trimmer, the 74-gun HMS Pegase and the sloop HMS Bulldog, the last of which he was rated as an able seaman. He was then aboard the 50-gun HMS Europa and afterwards the 20-gun HMS Camilla. He was rated as master's mate aboard the Camilla on 13 September 1786, and served on her in the West Indies.

    He passed his lieutenant's examination on 6 February 1788 but did not receive a commission immediately, instead serving aboard the 74-gun HMS Colossus, then moving to the 64-gun HMS Crown in October that year.

    Crown was chosen by Commodore William Cornwallis to fly his broad pennant in his new post in the East Indies, and Bligh sailed with her to this post. He spent several years on this station, being finally commissioned lieutenant on 25 June 1791 and appointed to the 32-gun HMS Thames under Captain Thomas Troubridge. He returned to Britain aboard her in December 1791. He then joined the 28-gun HMS Lizard in 1792, under the command of Captain Sir Thomas Williams.

    French Revolutionary Wars.

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    The Battle of Cape St Vincent, 14 February 1797, by Robert Cleveley. Bligh served as first-lieutenant of the 90-gun HMS Barfleur during the battle.

    With the outbreak of war with Revolutionary France in February 1793, Bligh joined the 74-gun HMS Courageux under Captain William Waldegrave. Waldegrave took her out to the Mediterranean and Bligh served aboard her during operations there under Commodore Robert Linzee against the Corsican town of St Fiorenzo. From there Courageux returned to Toulon and underwent repairs, during which time Bligh served ashore in the batteries defending the town during its siege by Republican forces. He continued to serve under Waldegrave after his promotion to rear-admiral, and joined his new flagship, the 90-gun HMS Barfleur as her first-lieutenant. Bligh was present in this post at the Battle of Cape St Vincent on 14 February 1797, and having acquitted himself well in action, was promoted to commander on 8 March 1797 and given the sloop HMS Kingfisher for service on the Portuguese coast. He was only briefly in command, but while cruising off Oporto was able to capture the 14-gun French privateer Général on 29 March.

    Bligh was ordered to leave his ship shortly after his arrival at Lisbon, and took passage with Vice-Admiral Waldegrave back to Britain aboard the frigate HMS Flora. He was promptly advanced to post-captain on his arrival on 25 April and appointed to the 38-gun HMS Latona. Latona was at Spithead when mutinies broke out there aboard the ships anchored in the roads, and Bligh's was one of the ships affected. He was sent ashore by his crew on 12 May, but was able to return when the mutiny had ended. His distant relation, William Bligh, who had already suffered a mutiny on his ship when he commanded HMS Bounty, was also involved in the widespread unrest, the crew of his ship HMS Director mutinied at the Nore shortly afterwards.

    Latona then went out to Newfoundland as Waldegrave's flagship after his appointment as Commodore Governor there. Waldegrave shifted his flag to the 50-gun HMS Romney after his arrival at Newfoundland in July, retaining Bligh as his flag captain for the new command. Bligh then took command of Waldegrave's new flagship, the 64-gun HMS Agincourt, in January 1798 and commanded her until the expiration of Waldegrave's tenure at Newfoundland, in 1800.

    He commissioned the 74-gun HMS Theseus in May 1801, and in December Vice-Admiral Waldegrave hoisted his flag aboard her with orders to go out the East Indies. Waldegrave struck his flag on 28 December however, and was promoted to full admiral and created Baron Radstock. Bligh instead received orders to go out to the West Indies in February 1802 and join the fleet at Jamaica under Admiral Sir George Campbell. He remained in the West Indies during the Peace of Amiens, and on the resumption of the wars with France in 1803, was assigned to support the blockade of Saint-Domingue.

    Napoleonic Wars.

    Blockade of Cap-François.

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    An eighteenth-century depiction of General Rochambeau, commander of the French garrison at Cap-François in Haiti. Bligh evacuated him and his men from the port.

    Bligh initially blockaded Cap-François but had difficulty in preventing the port being resupplied by small vessels operating from the island's northern ports. He decided to launch an attack on Port Dauphin, hoping to capture it and deny it to the French, and at the same time capture or destroy the French 28-gun ship Sagesse that lay in the harbour. Bligh anchored off the port on 8 September 1803 and bombarded Fort la Bouque. The bombardment was so well directed that the French were unable to make an effective reply, and eventually hauled down the colours. Bligh then had Theseus towed into the harbour with the ship's boats, and fired several shots at Sagesse, which promptly surrendered as well. Faced with the loss of the ship, the garrison's commander decided that he could no longer defend against a force of native Haitians who were attempting to expel the French from the island. He approached Bligh and requested to be allowed to surrender his forces to him and have them evacuated, fearing that they would be massacred if they fell into Haitian hands. Bligh agreed to take their surrender and having spiked the fort's guns and destroyed its ammunition, evacuated the garrison and transported them to Cap-François.

    On their arrival there they found that the French garrison's situation was desperate. General Dumont and his suite had been captured by the Haitians, and Cap-François was in imminent danger of falling to an army led by Jean-Jacques Dessalines. The French begged Bligh to intercede on behalf of Dumont, and he was able to secure the General and his staff's release. Unable to defend Cap-François any longer, the commander there, Rochambeau, agreed to surrender it to the Haitians and evacuate by 30 November. Rochambeau then approached the commander of the British blockade, Commodore John Loring, and attempted to negotiate passage for his squadron from the port. The negotiations did not result in an acceptable agreement for either side, though Rochambeau was hopeful that his squadron would be able to escape the blockade under cover of bad weather. By 30 November the blockade was still in force, and the Haitians had begun to take possession of the forts surrounding the harbour, threatening to use their guns to destroy the French ships with heated shot. Loring sent Bligh into the harbour, where he met with Captain Henry Barré of the French squadron, who urged Bligh to arrange a capitulation to save the garrison and squadron from being destroyed by the Haitians. Bligh agreed and obtained the formal surrender of the port to the British, and arranged with Dessalines to allow their evacuation. The squadron then sailed out and surrendered to the British force.

    Attack on Curaçao.

    Having performed these duties Bligh sailed to Jamaica and was given command of a squadron of three ships of the line and two frigates by Sir John Duckworth with orders to attack the Dutch-held island of Curaçao. Duckworth had received intelligence that the Dutch had not been able to reinforce the island and consequently it was only lightly defended. Bligh sailed to the island with his squadron, expecting to face only 160 men and a frigate, and with the garrison apparently having been further reduced by disease. He had permission to land troops if the Dutch refused to surrender, but Duckworth cautioned him from risking too much, partly because the plan to capture the island was Duckworth's own initiative. Bligh arrived off the island on 31 January 1804 with the 74-gun HMS Theseus and HMS Hercule, the frigates HMS Blanche and HMS Pique, and the schooner HMS Gipsy. The 74-gun HMS Vanguard had not arrived in time to join the expedition. After arriving off the island, Bligh sent an officer to negotiate with the island's governor. The Dutch refused to surrender and Bligh began to blockade the island and begin preparations to force a landing.

    Using his frigates to blockade the harbour, Bligh moved his ships of the line to a small cove, and exchanged fire with a shore battery. He landed a party of sailors and marines, carrying the battery without loss and then storming the heights around the cove, driving the Dutch away with four or five casualties among the British party. Having secured a landing site, Bligh sent 600 men ashore and landed some cannon, which he placed so as to be able to bombard Fort Republique and the town of St Anne. Contrary to reports, the Dutch had received significant reinforcements and though Bligh was able to set part of the town on fire, he was forced to constantly skirmish with Dutch forces, which numbered around 500 men. Though the Dutch were continually repulsed, British losses mounted, exacerbated by outbreaks of dysentery. With no quick end to the conflict in sight, and mindful that he had been warned not to overextend himself, Bligh called off the attack on 4 March, having exhausted his ammunition of 18 pounder shot. He re-embarked his men and returned to Jamaica, having sustained losses of 18 killed and 43 wounded. Though the British force had failed to capture the island, Duckworth was sympathetic, and felt that Bligh could have succeeded had the men and guns of HMS Vanguard been at his disposal.

    Return to Britain.

    Bligh remained in the Caribbean until July 1805, when Theseus became the flagship of the station's new commander, Vice-Admiral James Richard Dacres.

    Bligh asked Duckworth for permission to take command of the frigate HMS Surveillante, which was granted. He cruised with notable success against enemy shipping, capturing several privateers and over forty merchant vessels. He made a night-time landing on the Spanish island of Saint Andreas, capturing the garrison and the governor, and taking them away as prisoners of war. In July he was finally ordered to return to Britain, acting as an escort for a convoy 200 merchant ships. On 9 July he came across a convoy of twenty-six Spanish merchants off Havana and captured them all. Unwilling to delay his convoy, he had them all burnt, and then in company with the convoy's other escort frigate, HMS Fortunee, chased away a Spanish 74-gun ship, forcing her to anchor under the guns of the Morro Castle. Bligh arrived in Britain on 30 September 1806 and paid off Surveillante.

    Battle of Copenhagen and Portugal.

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    A Danish painting from 1808 depicting the Battle of Copenhagen, where Bligh had command of HMS Alfred.

    Bligh did not go to sea again until March 1807, when he was given command of the 74-gun HMS Alfred and ordered to join the fleet bound for Copenhagen under Vice-Admiral James Gambier. He took part in the Battle of Copenhagen in August/September that year, resulting in the Danes being forced to surrender their fleet to the British. Bligh had special responsibility for overseeing the landing of the troops and stores during the operation. Following the successful conclusion of the campaign Bligh was sent to serve off Portugal under Admiral Sir Charles Cotton.

    Cotton was asked for assistance from the inhabitants of Figueras in July 1808, threatened by the advance of the French army. Cotton sent Bligh to superintend the defence of the area and he was able to hold it with 500 marines until being reinforced by troops landed at Mondego Bay under Sir Arthur Wellesley. Bligh then re-embarked his marines, oversaw the landing of Wellesley's army, and sailed down the coast to Lisbon, supporting it from offshore. Bligh also oversaw the landing of various divisions as the army advanced, landing 3,500 men under General Robert Anstruther on 18 August and 6,500 men under General Wroth Palmer Acland on 20 August. Bligh also landed Sir John Moore's force and continued to support the army, being involved at the Battle of Vimeiro on 21 August 1808. Bligh then rejoined Sir Charles Cotton at Lisbon and was assigned to the escort to Britain of the Russian fleet under Admiral Dmitry Senyavin, which had surrendered to the British under the terms of the Convention of Cintra.

    Basque Roads.

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    Destruction of the French Fleet in Basque Roads by Thomas Sutherland after a painting by Thomas Whitcombe, 1817. Bligh commanded HMS Valiant at the attack.

    Bligh was given command of the 74-gun HMS Valiant in January 1809. Valiant was patrolling off Lorient, and Bligh temporarily took command of the 74-gun HMS Revenge and sailed her to join the squadron there. While en route he fell in with a French squadron of eight ships of the line, which followed Revenge until she was able to make contact with the British squadron under the command of Captain Sir John Beresford, causing the French to break off. Bligh then sailed with Beresford's squadron to join Admiral Lord Gambier off Basque Roads. Bligh was present during the night-attack with fireships by Lord Cochrane on the French fleet in the roads. The following morning, 12 April, Gambier sent Bligh into the harbour with HMS Valiant, HMS Revenge, HMS Bellona and several frigates and bomb vessels, and to anchor near the Île-d'Aix. Having done so Bligh asked permission to support Cochrane, which was given. He moved into the inner road and joined the attacks on the forts and several beached French warships, and having taken out the prisoners, burnt the 118-gun Ville de Varsovie and the 74-gun Aquilon. In the summer of 1809 he was called as a witness at the Court-martial of James, Lord Gambier which assessed whether Admiral Gambier had failed to support Cochrane during the battle. Gambier was controversially cleared of all charges.

    Capture of Confiance.


    Bligh then resumed his station with the Channel Fleet, patrolling off the French ports. On 3 February 1810 he came across the French ship Confiance, a former frigate that had been purchased by the merchants of the Île de France to transport their goods back to France. At the time Bligh had been sailing in company with the 74-gun HMS Defiance, and under the orders of her captain, Henry Hotham. On 1 February Hotham had ordered Bligh to follow him into Quiberon Bay, but Valiant was unable to weather the point, nor could she make progress in the light winds the following day. She was therefore still off Belle Île on 3 February, when the Confiance came in sight. Confiance had evaded British blockaders and cruisers during the entirety of her voyage, having escaped pursuit fourteen times in her 93-day passage from the Indian Ocean. Hampered by light winds, she was unable to escape the Valiant, and finally surrendered to her just a few hours away from reaching safety in a French port. Her cargo was valued at £800,000, of which Bligh received £14,041.

    Later life and family.

    By now extremely wealthy from prize money, Bligh remained captain of Valiant until May 1810, when ill health forced his resignation. He went ashore and did not return to an active command for the remainder of the wars. He was appointed a Companion of the Bath on 4 June 1815, and was promoted to rear-admiral on 19 July 1821.

    He was twice married, having married his first wife, Sarah Leeke, on 31 May 1798. He remarried on 17 August 1809 at St Marylebone, uniting with Cecilia Moultrie, the daughter of the former governor of East Florida John Moultrie. Bligh made his home at Fareham in 1823, and, apparently suffering from a long-term illness he had contracted in his service in the West Indies, died at his seat of Whitedale House, Hambledon, Hampshire on 19 January 1831 at the age of sixty
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    Captain John Erskine Douglas.



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    John Erskine Douglas (c. 1758 – 25 July 1847) was a senior British
    Royal Navy officer of the early nineteenth century who served in a number of vessels and participated at the destruction of the French ship of the line Impétueux in 1806 and the victory over the French off Brest during the Battle of Basque Roads in 1809. He also served in the Mediterranean and off Norfolk, Virginia, where he gained notoriety by searching American vessels for British deserters without asking permission from the American authorities. He later served as commander in chief at Jamaica and rose through the ranks to full admiral, during which career he amassed a fortune.

    Life.

    The son of David Douglas, a descendant of James Douglas, 2nd earl of Queensberry, Douglas was born in the later 1750s, and joined the British
    Royal Navy at a young age, reaching the rank of commander in 1794 at the outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars. Within a year he had been made a post captain and taken command of the small frigate HMS Garland, which he commanded in the North Sea until 1798, when he transferred to the larger frigate HMS Boston.

    Boston was stationed off the
    Eastern Seaboard of the United States, intercepting numerous French merchant ships trading with American ports. For a time he blockaded the French frigate Sémillante, but by 1801 had sailed for the West Indies, operating in the Leeward Islands and then moving north to Halifax, Nova Scotia, where he remained until 1804, continuing in employment throughout the Peace of Amiens.

    On his return to Britain, Douglas was given the 80-gun
    ship of the lineHMS Impetueux, moving in 1805 to the 74-gun HMS Bellona, which participated in the Atlantic campaign of 1806 as part of the squadron under Vice-Admiral Sir Richard Strachan. Ordered to the Eastern Seaboard of the United States, Bellona was cruising with HMS Belleisle off Cape Henry on 14 September 1806 when the French ship of the line Impétueux was spotted steering into the Chesapeake. Impétueux had been caught in a hurricane earlier in the summer and was badly damaged, limping to port under jury masts. Closely pursued, Impétueux was driven on shore by her captain and the crew scrambled onto the beach as British boats boarded and captured the wreck. Although British intervention on American shore was a clear violation of American neutrality in the war, there was no protest from the American authorities – the only complaint coming from the French consul at Norfolk. Damaged beyond repair, the wreck of Impétueux was burnt on the beach.

    Douglas remained off the Chesapeake during 1807 in command of a squadron of smaller vessels observing two French ships of the line at anchor in
    Hampton Roads. This squadron became embroiled in the controversy surrounding the removal of British deserters from American-flagged vessels that ended with the Chesapeake-Leopard Affair in July 1807 and Douglas exchanged angry letters with the Mayor of Norfolk.

    Returning to Europe in 1808, Bellona was attached to the
    Channel Fleet and in 1809 was part of the blockade fleet under Lord Gambier that destroyed a number of French ships at the Battle of Basque Roads. Moving to the North Sea in 1810, Douglas captured the privateer L'Heros du Nord and in 1812 transferred to the 98-gun second rateHMS Prince of Wales in the Mediterranean, where he remained for the rest of the war.

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    Catherine Anne Griffith wife of Erskine Douglas

    In 1814, Douglas was promoted to
    rear-admiral and from 1816 served as commander in chief of the Jamaica Station, remaining in the post until 1817.
    Retiring from active service, Douglas continued to rise through the ranks, becoming a vice-admiral in 1825 and a full admiral in 1838. He died aged 89 at Swallows near
    Watford in Hertfordshire on 25 July 1847, leaving the considerable fortune to his daughters. The equivalent of £3,537,600 today, with a proviso that his sister receive £350. a year.
    Last edited by Bligh; 07-19-2019 at 13:49.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    Captain Alexander Robert Kerr.

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    (1770 – 4 August 1831) was a Royal Navy officer of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century who is best known for his service as captain of the ship of the lineHMS Revenge at the Battle of Basque Roads in 1809 and his subsequent involvement in the court-martial of Admiral Lord Gambier which followed. He had earlier in his career fought and been badly wounded at the Action of 31 July 1793 off the coast of New Jersey.


    Life.

    Kerr was born in 1770, the son of Robert Kerr, a Royal Navy lieutenant. In 1781 was joined the navy himself as midshipman on board the frigateHMS Endymion, commanded by Captain James Gambier and from there served in a number of other vessels, including a period on HMS Boreas under Captain Horatio Nelson. In 1790 he was promoted to lieutenant and joined first HMS Narcissus and then the frigate HMS Boston under Captain George Courtenay.

    Boston was assigned to the American Station at the outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars and on 31 July 1793 challenged the French frigate Embuscade, then anchored in New York City to combat. Captain Jean-Baptiste-François Bompart obliged, and the frigates battled for several hours off the coast of Navesink, New Jersey. In the engagement Boston took severe damage and Courtenay was killed. Kerr himself was badly wounded, struck in the shoulder by grape-shot and blinded in one eye by flying splinters. The surviving British officers managed to extract Boston from the action before the damage became fatal, and later withdrew to St John's, Newfoundland.

    After his recovery, Kerr served in HMS Repulse and HMS Clyde, fighting in the latter at the Action of 20 August 1799, for which he was commended by Captain Charles Cunningham. In 1802 at the start of the Napoleonic Wars he was promoted to commander and served in HMS Diligence and HMS Combatant at the blockade of Boulogne. In 1806 he was promoted to captain and from 1808 took a series of temporary commissions as commander of the ships of the lineHMS Tigre, HMS Valiant and HMS Revenge in the Channel Fleet, then commanded by his old captain, now Lord Gambier.

    In April 1809, Revenge was heavily engaged at the Battle of Basque Roads, in which a French fleet was driven ashore at the mouth of the Charente River and partially destroyed. The engagement was particularly notable for a bitter dispute which subsequently arose between Gambier and the commander of the inshore squadron, Captain Lord Cochrane, after the latter publicly accused the former of incompetence in his conduct during the battle. Kerr was called as a witness for the defence during Gambier's ensuingcourt-martial, at which the admiral was acquitted.

    Kerr then took command of HMS Ganymede, HMS Unicorn and then HMS Esperance, engaged in anti-privateer patrols and convoying of East India cargo. In 1811 he assumed command of his last ship, HMS Acasta, operating against American privateers in the War of 1812 until the peace in 1815, when he retired from active service. He was initiated as a Companion of the Order of the Bath in appreciation for his service, and died at Stonehouse, Plymouth in 1831, survived by his wife Charlotte and seven children.

    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    French fleet.


    Allemand's fleet
    Ship
    Rate
    Guns
    Commander
    Casualties
    Notes
    Killed
    Wounded
    Total
    Océan
    120
    Contre-amiral Zacharie Allemand
    Captain Pierre-Nicolas Rolland
    c. 50
    -
    c. 50
    Brest Fleet. c. 50 sailors killed fending off fireships on 11 April. Grounded and badly damaged. Reached safety on 15 April.
    Foudroyant
    80
    Contre-amiral Antoine Louis de Gourdon
    Captain Antoine Henri
    0
    0
    0
    Brest Fleet. Grounded 12 April. Badly damaged but reached safety on 16 April.
    Ville de Varsovie
    80
    Captain Cuvillier
    c. 100
    Brest Fleet. Driven ashore and badly damaged on 11 April. Captured and later destroyed by British prize crew.
    Tourville
    74
    Captain Charles Nicolas Lacaille
    0
    0
    0
    Brest Fleet. Grounded and badly damaged. Reached safety on 16 April. Lacaille later court-martialed and dismissed.
    Jean-Bart
    74
    Captain Charles Lebozec
    -
    -
    -
    Brest Fleet. Drove ashore accidentally on 26 February at Île Madame and became a total wreck.
    Tonnerre
    74
    Captain Nicolas Clément de la Roncière
    0
    0
    0
    Brest Fleet. Driven ashore and wrecked on 11 April. Burned by own crew.
    Aquilon
    74
    Captain Jacques-Rémy Maingon
    1
    0
    1
    Brest Fleet. Driven ashore and badly damaged on 11 April. Captured and later destroyed by British prize crew. Captain killed by stray shot after surrender.
    Régulus
    74
    Captain Jean Jacques Etienne Lucas
    0
    0
    0
    Brest Fleet. Grounded and badly damaged. Reached safety on 29 April.
    Cassard
    74
    Captain Gilbert-Amable Faure
    5
    15
    20
    Rochefort squadron. Grounded 12 April. Reached safety on 13 April.
    Jemmappes
    74
    Captain Joseph Favreau
    0
    0
    0
    Rochefort squadron. Grounded 11 April. Reached safety on 12 April.
    Patriote
    74
    Captain Jean-Michel Mahé
    0
    0
    0
    Rochefort squadron. Grounded 11 April. Reached safety on 12 April.
    Calcutta
    50
    Captain Jean-Baptiste Lafon
    0
    12
    12
    Rochefort squadron. Armed en flute. Driven ashore and badly damaged on 11 April. Captured and destroyed by British prize crew. Lafon later court-martialed and shot for cowardice.
    Indienne
    40
    Captain Guillaume Marcellin Proteau
    0
    0
    0
    Brest Fleet. Driven ashore and badly damaged on 11 April. Destroyed by own crew on 16 April.
    Elbe
    40
    Captain Jacques François Bellenger
    0
    0
    0
    Brest Fleet. Grounded 11 April. Reached safety on 12 April.
    Pallas
    40
    Captain Armand François Le Bigot
    0
    0
    0
    Rochefort squadron. Grounded 11 April. Reached safety on 12 April.
    Hortense
    40
    Captain Emmanuel Halgan
    0
    0
    0
    Rochefort squadron. Grounded 11 April. Reached safety on 12 April.
    Nisus
    -
    -
    -
    Brest Fleet.
    Total casualties: 150-200 casualties


    Last edited by Bligh; 05-24-2019 at 14:12.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    Zacharie Jacques Théodore Allemand.



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    (1 May 1762, in Port-Louis – 2 March 1826, in Toulon) was a French admiral.



    Early career.

    Allemand was born to a captain of the East Indian Company. Orphaned at an early age, he started his sailing career at 12 as an apprentice on Superbe, an East Indiaman. In 1778, at the outbreak of the American War of Independence, he volunteered for Navy service of Sévère, in Suffren's squadron. By the end of the war, Allemand had risen to lieutenant de frégate and served on Annibal. He later went on to serve on the fluyts Baleine and Outarde in the Indian Ocean.

    In late 1786, Allemand returned to France to benefit from a reform of the Navy by which he could obtain a permanent commission of sous-lieutenant de vaisseau for his service. In this capacity, he served on a number of frigates in the Caribbean and off America.

    French Revolution and First Empire.

    Allemand was promoted to full lieutenant in 1792, and had risen to captain by the outbreak of the War of the First Coalition in 1793. He was given command of a light squadron, with his flag on the frigate Carmagnole. Engaging in commerce raiding, he also captured the frigate Thames, helpless after her fight against Uranie the previous day, making the first capture of a Royal Navy ship of the war and thus being heralded as a hero by the National Convention.

    In 1794, Allemand was given command of the 74-gun Duquesne and carried out raids against British commerce outposts in Sierra Leone and Guinea, capturing 21 merchantmen.

    After returning to the Mediterranean, Allemand was incorporated in Admiral Martin's squadron. Martin and Allemand disliked each other, and their relations soured to the point where Allemand was nearly relieved of duty for insubordination after the battle of Cape Noli.

    Promoted to chef de division (rear admiral), Allemand took command of a division in Richery's squadron. He was sent with two ships of the line and one frigate to raid British outposts in Labrador, and on his way back captured a convoy worth 80 million francs, making 1,800 prisoners including the Governor General of Canada, his family, and a number of officers, returning to Brest in November 1796. Upon his arrival, Allemand was relieved of duty for "brutality towards his crews" and "rudeness towards his passengers".

    Reinstated, Allemand took command of the 74-gun Tyrannicide and took part in the Cruise of Bruix. On 11 July 1799, Bruix was replaced by Latouche Tréville, who again relieved Allemand from duty for "rudeness" in 1800. The next year, Allemand commanded the Aigle.

    After serving in office duties in 1802, Allemand received command of the Magnanime, in Admiral Missiessy's squadron, on which he departed on 11 January 1805 for the Saint-Domingue expedition. Upon the return of the squadron to Rochefort, Missiessy was disgraced and fell ill, giving effective command to Allemand.

    On 22 June, Allemand was officially made chief of the squadron, and tasked with a diversion manoeuver that would bring him to rejoin Villeneuve's squadron in Ferrol: Allemand's expedition of 1805 was a vast commerce raid that led to the capture of over a hundred merchantmen and of the 64-gun HMS Calcutta. Allemand eluded the three squadrons sent to chase him, earning his division the nickname of "invisible squadron".

    This success earned Allemand the consideration of Napoleon, in spite of severe notations from Decrès criticising his character. He was promoted to Rear Admiral on 1 January 1806.

    In 1809, Allemand was vice-admiral and commanded the squadrons of Brest and Rochefort. His insufficient defensive dispositions allowed the British to launch a fireship attack on his squadron at anchor, starting the Battle of the Basque Roads. Allemand reacted to the attack merely by giving his captains their liberty of manoeuver and concentrating on the safety of his own ship, the 120-gun Océan, which sailed to the haven of the Charente River after throwing part of her artillery overboard. The resulting loss of four ships and two frigates was blamed on captains, four of whom were court-martialed with one relieved of duty and one executed by firing squad, but Allemand's role was never questioned, much to the outrage of the officers. Allemand was quickly transferred to the command of the Mediterranean fleet to prevent possibility of his hearing by the court of Rochefort.
    On 15 August 1810, he was made a Count of the Empire.

    In Toulon, Allemand commanded a squadron that remained at anchor until the end of the Empire. He engaged in a number of rows, fights and even brawls with his officers, and having very bad relations with the maritime prefect Emeriau.

    In 1812, Allemand succeeded in bringing several warships from Lorient where they were trapped to Brest in order to form a larger French fleet.

    In 1813, Allemand was made aid to Missiessy in Flessingue, but violently refused the office, arguing that he could now serve only as chief commander. This last outburst led to his disgrace and he was forcibly retired.

    Restoration.

    Allemand attempted to return to Navy service during the Bourbon Restoration, but to no avail. In May 1814, he was made a member of the Académie des Sciences, which he presided from August. In June, he was made a Knight of the Order of Saint Louis.

    During the Hundred Days, in March 1815, Allemand offered his services to Napoleon, but Decrès refused to reinstate him. Allemand was the only general officer to be thus rebuked.
    In the following years, Allemand devoted his efforts to Freemasonry, creating an ephemeral dissident Order named "Suprême Conseil du Prado", of which he proclaimed himself "Souverain Grand Commandeur"



    Allemand died in Toulon on 2 March 1826.

    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    Pierre-Nicolas, baron Rolland.

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    (29 April 1761 at Dieppe – 9 November 1825), was a French admiral noted for his participation at the battles of Cape Finisterre in 1805 and the Basque Roads in 1809 during the Napoleonic Wars.

    life.

    Rolland joined the
    French Navy at a young age, participating in the American War of Independence, on board Sibylle in 1778 in the squadron of Louis Guillouet d'Orvilliers, the Amphion in 1779, in the squadron of d'Estaing, the Amphitrite between 1779 and 1781, and the Emeraude in 1782, in which he was wounded at the Battle of the Saintes.

    An auxiliary officer in 1782, as a lieutenant, Rolland was promoted captain en 1796 and was in command of 74-gun
    ship of the lineAtlas with Villeneuve's fleet in 1805, fighting at the Battle of Cape Finisterre in which he was badly wounded. In 1809 he was flag captain to Zacharie Allemand on Océan during the Battle of Basque Roads, in which his ship was badly damaged and nearly destroyed.

    Rolland was promoted
    Contre-amiral in 1814, after being distinguished by his command of Romulus at the Action of 13 February 1814 off Toulon, under the orders of Julien Marie Cosmao-Kerjulien. He was honoured as a commander of the Legion d'Honneur and made a Baron de l'Empire.

    Bibliography.


    • Théodore-Éloi Lebreton, Biographie normande: recueil de notices biographiques et bibliographiques sur les personnages célèbres nés en Normandie et sur ceux qui se sont seulement distingués par leurs actions ou par leurs écrits, 1861
    • Christian de La Jonquière, Les Marins français sous Louis XVI: guerre d'indépendance américaine, 1996
    • P. Lerot, Les gloires maritimes de la France: notices biographiques sur les plus célèbres marins, 1866
    • Joseph François Gabriel Hennequin, Biographie maritime ou notices historiques sur la vie et les campagnes des marins célèbres français et étrangers, Volume 1, 1835

    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    Antoine Louis Gourdon,

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    Born in Paris on 20 July 1765 and died there on 28 June 1833, was a vice-amiral of the French Navy.

    Life.

    He saw his first campaign in the frigate Aimable, taking part in the capture of Demerara. Unlike many officers he did not join the French Royalist cause, and was dismissed in 1793. Later restored to the Navy, he served with the Saint-Domingue expedition, commanding the naval division at Port-de-Paix.

    He later took part, in April 1809, at the Battle of Basque Roads, on board Foudroyant. In 1811 he took command of the French squadron based in the Scheldt, defending the river from British attack during the Siege of Antwerp in 1814.

    After the fall of Emperor Napoleon, he joined the Bourbon Restoration. From 1815, he successfully commanded the fleet at Rochefort, and that at Brest between 1816 and 1826. In 1822, he was promoted to vice-amiral and became a member of the conseil d'Amirauté. In 1829, he became directeur général of the Dépôt des cartes et plans de la Marine, the French naval cartography department.

    He was made a Chevalier (February 1804), Officier (June 1804), Commandeur (July 1814) and Grand Officier (August 1820) of the national order of the Légion d’honneur as well as a Chevalier (July 1814), Commandeur (May 1816) and Grand Croix (August 1824) of the Ordre de Saint-Louis.
    He died on 28 June 1833 and was buried in the 39th division of the Cimetière du Père-Lachaise in Paris.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    Gilbert-Amable Faure-Conac.



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    (5 April 1755 – 14 February 1819), was an officer of the French Navy and politician for the department of Creuse in the late eighteenth century.

    Life.

    Born the son of Jean-Baptiste Faure, of Fournoux, and Marguerite Rochon, Faure-Conac volunteered for naval service in 1778, serving for three campaigns on Argus, the corvette Sylphide and the frigate Pourvoyeuse, and became sub-lieutenant under Admiral Suffren in the squadron sent to operate against British India during the American Revolutionary War.



    He later became naval commander at Pontarion, and after the French Revolution the administrator for Creuse. On 7 September 1792 he was elected by plurality as the alternate deputy to represent Creuse at the National Convention. After the death of Jean-François Guyès, he took his seat on 25 frimaire an II (15 December 1793), where he was occupied exclusively with naval issues, voting to postpone the indictment against Minister of the Navy Jean de Lacoste. By the decree of 30 thermidor an II (17 August 1794), Faure-Conac was sent on a mission with Bernard Thomas Tréhouart to the ports of Brest and Lorient, for which the committee of inspectors allocated 6000 livres on (18 August 1794).

    During this mission, they learned from the authorities of Bergen in Norway that French sailors had helped to extinguish a major fire in the city. On 20 frimaire an III (10 December 1794), with his colleague, Faure-Conac sent to the Committee of Public Safety, the 171 decrees made during their trip, which were then redistributed to other committees. Recalled by the degree of 2 ventôse an III (20 February 1795), he was replaced by Julien-François Palasne de Champeaux and Jean-Nicolas Topsent. At the Convention, he opposed the plan by Marie-Benoît-Louis Gouly regarding the reorganisation of naval artillery.


    Elected by the same department for the Conseil des Cinq-Cents on 21 vendémiaire an IV (13 October 1795) by 151 votes from 218 voters, Faure-Conac was promoted to captain on 22 September 1796, as commander of the frigate Bravoure. On 8 ventôse an V (26 February 1797) he resigned his political position to serve in the Navy. Between 1799 and 1809, he commanded Indivisible, Bravoure, Constitution, and Cassard. Whilst in command of the latter

    he took part in the action of the Basque Roads.


    On 4 January 1811, he was named commandant of the École de marine de Brest, on board the school-ship Tourville until 1814.
    He was made an honorary contre-amiral on 1 January 1816 and retired to Chénérailles.



    He was made an officier of the Légion d'honneur and a chevalier de Saint-Louis.

    He died on February 14th, 1819 aged 63.
    France.


    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    Captain Charles-Nicolas Lacaille.





    Born: 3 April 1754.
    Entered naval service either commercial or military position:1776
    Captain de vaisseau 2nd class: 29 January 1794.
    1795 L'Heureux (74), as Commanding Officer.

    1795/03/14. Action off Genoa.
    Captain de vaisseau 1st class: 19 June 1796
    Captain de de vaisseau 2nd class: 23 September 1800
    Member of the Legion d’Honneur: 5 February 1804
    Officer of the Legion d’Honneur:14 June 1804.

    1809/04/11. Action of Aix Roads.

    Wounds received while in the service of France: None.

    Died: 14 August 1817.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

  39. #39
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    Captain Charles-Helene Le Bozec.



    Born: 25 January 1758
    Entered naval service either commercial or military position: 1777
    Captain de vaisseau 3rd class: 15 August 1795
    Captain de vaisseau 2nd class: 21 March 1796
    Captain de de vaisseau 1st class: 1 January 1809
    Officer of the Legion d’Honneur: 14 June 1804
    Wounds recieved while in the service of France: None
    Died: 12 February 1837
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

  40. #40
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    Guillaume Marcellin Proteau.




    (2 May 1772 – 21 September 1837) was a French naval officer and later army general during the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.

    Service.

    Proteau was born on the island of Groix in Morbihan in 1772 and joined the French Navy after the French Revolution in 1793. In December 1796 he served with the fleet which participated in the Expédition d'Irlande, a failed attempt to invade the Kingdom of Ireland with an army led by Lazare Hoche as Lieutenant on a ship named l'Aigle, and was made a prisoner at Bantry.

    Proteau was named capitaine de frégate on 24 September 1799, and on 7 January 1801, he was given command of the frigate Indienne. He was promoted to capitaine de vaisseau on 24 September 1803 and remained in command of Indienne. He was made chevalier of the Legion of Honour on 4 February 1804, and was advanced to officier of the order on 14 June 1804.

    In February 1809, Indienne was with the fleet which sailed from Brest and became trapped in the Basque Roads. On 12 April 1809, the fleet was attacked by British fireships at the Battle of the Basque Roads, and Indienne was driven ashore and later destroyed. Proteau faced a court-martial, and was condemned to three months' house arrest for abandoning his ship too hastily.

    On 19 June 1811, he was given command of the 17th squadron, but on 22 March 1812 he was sent to Russia, joining the garrison of Pillau. On 16 May 1813, he was made an adjudant commandant in the Grande Armée, and was promoted to général de brigade on 6 November 1813, commanding the grand quartier général of the Grande Armée.

    After the Bourbon Restoration, he was made a chevalier de Saint-Louis on 21 August 1814, and in October 1814, he was sent by Louis XVIII, to Kœnigsberg in Prussia, to negotiate the return of French prisoners of war. He was promoted to commandeur de la Légion d'honneur on 27 December 1814.

    During the Hundred Days, he was given command of the Hautes-Alpes department on 26 March 1815, and then took command at Cherbourg on 20 May 1815. Between 9 January 1816 and 1832, he commanded several departments.

    Proteau was created a vicomte in 1823, by King Louis XVIII, and retired in 1834.
    He died on 21 September 1837, at Lorient. A barracks at Cherbourg is named after Proteau, accommodating the École des applications militaires de l'énergie atomique.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

  41. #41
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    Captain Jean-Michel Mahé.



    Mahé started his career in the merchant Navy in 1789, and became an Midshipman in the Navy on 16 April 1794. He served on the fluyt Duras before embarking on Montagne, flagship of Villaret-Joyeuse on which he took part in the Glorious First of June.

    From October 1794, he served on the frigate Fraternité, on which he took part in the Battle of Groix on 23 June 1795 under Lieutenant Florinville.[1][2] He then served on the brig-aviso Impatient, the lugger Titus and the felucca Fort.

    On 7 July 1797, he was promoted to Ensign and given command of the schooner Gentille, escorting convoys off Bretagne. He served twice on the corvette Réolaise, captained the gunboat Caroline in the summer of 1800, and returned on Impatient from October 1800 to January 1801.

    In February, he embarked on the frigate Chiffone and took part in the capture of the Portuguese frigate Hirondelle on 16 May 1801. On 16 June, Chiffone captured the East Indiaman Bellona on her way from Bengal to London. Mahé was given command of the captured ship, and a prize crew took Bellona to Mauritius where she arrived a month later. Mahé then returned to France on the merchantman Aventure.
    On his return, Mahé was given command of the aviso Vigie, and promoted to Lieutenant on 5 March 1803. On 9 November 1804, he was promoted to Commander and became first officer on Bucentaure in December 1804. On 23 February, he was given command of the frigate Hermione, on which he took part in the capture of HMS Cyane, the Battle of Cape Finisterre, in the Battle of Trafalgar and in Lamellerie's expedition. In late 1807, he took part in a division under Rear-Admiral Baudin, ferrying troops to Martinique, before decommissioning Hermione on 26 May 1808.
    Mahé then served on Patriote as adjudant-commandant of the squadron before being promoted to Captain on 12 July 1808. He successively commanded Ville de Varsovie and Patriote in Rochefort.He took part in the Battle of the Basque Roads, where Patriote ran aground and Mahé ordered her artillery thrown overboard to refloat her; on the 12th, Patriote came under fire from the British squadron and Mahé sent his sick and his wounded ashore to prepare his crew for the evacuation of his ship, but she refloated in the night of the 13th and washed to safety under Fort Lupin.
    Mahé then commanded Annibal in Toulon. On 18 November 1812, he took command of the 74-gun Borée, which he captained during the Action of 5 November 1813 and until she was decommissioned on 13 June 1814. He eventually retired on 1 January 1816.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

  42. #42
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    Emmanuel Halgan,

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    31 December 1771 - Paris, 20 April 1852) was a French Navy officer and admiral.

    Biography.



    Born to the family of a bailiff, Halgan joined the French Royal Navy aged 16. He then served as a lieutenant and first officer on merchantmen.

    After rejoining the Navy, he served aboard the brig Curieux, captured by a British frigate in 1793. Halgan was taken prisoner. Upon his return to France, he served on the Terrible and on a number of other ships.

    In 1798, Halgan received command of Aréthuse. The next year, Aréthuse was dismasted and captured by the 74-gun Excellent, off Portugal. The Royal Navy took Aréthuse into service as HMS Raven.

    In 1800, Halgan was tasked with commissioning Clorinde, and then served as first officer on Clorinde as she was sent to Santo Domingo.
    Upon his return to France, Halgan received command of the brig Épervier, with ensign Jérôme Bonaparte under his orders.

    In Martinique, Halgan took temporary command of the 20-gun Berceau. He sailed to France, and in 1803, sailed to the Indian Ocean to warn of the outbreak of the War of the Third Coalition. At Mauritius, he joined up with Linois' squadron, engaging in commerce raiding. Berceau captured the 1500-ton Countess of Sutherland and on 3 December along with Motard's Sémillante destroyed outposts at Pulo Bay, which was about eight miles from Bencoolen.

    Sailing towards the Sea of China, Halgan persuaded Linois to sail through the Gaspar Strait, of which he had studied recent maps. The French squadron then met a 26-ship convoy of the Honourable East India Company, leading to the not quite-Battle of Pulo Aura.

    Promoted to capitaine de frégate, Halgan was sent to France and received command of the frigate Cybèle, but was then ordered to embark on the Vétéran instead, under Prince Jérôme Bonaparte.

    In 1809, Halgan captained the Heureuse during the Battle of the Basque Roads. Heureuse was amongst the survivors of the battle.

    In December 1813, with three companies of sailors and a fraction of the crews of his ships, Halgan defended the fortress of Hellevoetsluis, in Holland, against the attacks of several thousands insurgents. The French-held fortresses were later ordered abandoned due to the advances of the Allies, and the Meuse flotilla was scuttled in Willemstad. Halgan retreated to Anvers. When Anvers was shelled, he defended the harbour and helped preserve the ships and the naval installations.

    After the Bourbon Restauration, Helgan was given command of the Superbe, sailing to the Caribbean.

    Halgan the supervised the naval divisions of the Levant and of America. In 1819, he was nominated director for personnel at the Ministry of the Navy. He later returned to Levant to command a squadron, before returning to his office at the Ministry in 1824 and serving at the Council of State.

    From 1819 to 1830, he sited at the Chamber of Deputies. In 1830, he presided the Commission of Naval Signals.

    In 1837, he was made general inspector of the Harbours of the Ocean, and a Peer of France.

    After retiring on 24 June 1841, by then a vice-admiral, Halgan was promoted to Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour.

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    The genus Halgania of small shrubs in the family Boraginaceae which are native to Australia was named in his honour.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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