Bligh

Depictions of the ships behind the SoG-miniatures

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The Redoutable.



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Redoutable was a
Téméraire class74-gunship of the line of the French Navy.


The ship was laid down at Brest in January 1790, and launched as Suffren on 31 May 1791. She was the first ship of the French Navy named in honour of Vice-admiral
Suffren de Saint Tropez, who had died a hero of the American War of Independence on 8 December 1788. She was completed there in December 1792.


Quibéron mutinies.

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Suffren was attached to the Brest fleet under Vice-admiral de Grimouard, later replaced by
Morard de Galles. Under Captain Obet, she departed Brest in 1793 for a cruise to Quibéron In September, the crews of the fleet revolted in the Quibéron mutinies, including the crew of Suffren.

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In retaliation, Suffren was renamed Redoutable on 20 May 1794. The same day, she received the new naval flag of the Republic, the full tricolour which replaced the white flag with a tricolour canton, and hoisted her.

Service in Brest.

From March to June 1794, Redoutable, under Captain Dorré, was the flagship of the naval station of Cancale. The division of Cancale was under Dorré, and was composed of Redoutable and her sister-ship
Nestor, under Captain Monnier.

In December, she took part in the
Croisière du Grand Hiver under Captain Moncousu; upon departure, she broke her cables, but unlike the ill-fated Républicain, she managed to reach the open sea, followed by the frigate Vertu. However, the damage sustained in the incident forced her to cancel her departure, and she returned to Brest.


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In February 1795, Redoutable was the flagship of a division under Rear-
admiral
Kerguelen within the fleet of Brest, under Villaret-Joyeuse. Still under Captain Moncousu and with Commander Bourayne as first officer, she took part in the Battle of Groix on 23 June 1795, where her poor sailing properties compelled the frigate Virginie, under Captain Bergeret, to take her in tow. During the battle, she was one of the few ships of observe Villaret's orders to support Alexandre.] Later, along with Tigre, she attempted to support Formidable, but to no avail as Formidable '​s tops caught fire and she ceased all resistance to save herself, eventually striking her colours.[ After the battle, she sailed back to Port-Louis, near Lorient,


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In December 1796, Redoutable took part in the
Expédition d'Irlande under Moncousu, by then promoted to Rear-admiral, and was the first French ship to reach Bantry Bay.


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After rallying elements of the French fleet. In the night of 22 to 23 December, she accidentally collided with
Nielly's flagship, the frigate Résolue, dismasting her of her bowsprit, foremast, and mizzen; only her mainmast stayed upright. the 74-gun Pégase took Résolue in tow and returned with her to Brest, where they arrived on 30 December; Redoutable eventually limped back to Brest, where she arrived on 5 January 1797, in consort with Fougueux, Trajan, Neptune and Tourville, and four frigates.
Service in the Caribbean.


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In March 1802, the Redoutable was the flagship of a squadron of two
ships of the line and four frigates under Admiral Bouvet sent to reinforce Guadeloupe in 1802 and in the Saint-Domingue expedition in 1803, departing on 9 January from Ajaccio with troops and arriving on 4 February.

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In 1803, Redoutable, under Captain Siméon, was part of a naval division under Rear-admiral
Bedout, based in Saint-Domingue. The division was composed of the 74-gun Argonaute as flagship, with Captain Bourdé as Bedout's flag officer; the 74-guns Redoutable and Aigle, under Captain Gourrège; the frigate Vertu, under Commander Montalan; and the corvettes Serpente, under Commander Gallier-Labrosse, and Éole, under Lieutenant Descorches.
Battle of Trafalgar.


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Redoutable (second from left) overtakes Neptune (far left), rushing to cover the aft of Bucentaure (far right) from Nelson's Victory (centre).


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Redoutable simultaneously engaged by Victory and Temeraire
At the
Battle of Trafalgar, on 21 October 1805, Redoutable was commanded by Captain Lucas, with Lieutenant Dupotet as first officer

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Redoutable was the third ship behind the flagship
Bucentaure in the French line, coming behind Maistral's Neptune and Quevedo's San Leandro. When Neptune and San Leandro dropped behind Bucentaure, exposing her stern, Redoutable rushed to cover her and prevent Nelson's Victory from cutting the Franco-Spanish line of battle.


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With her bowsprit almost touching Bucentaure '​s stern, Redoutable fired on Victory '​s rigging for ten minutes, trying to disable her to prevent the crossing of the French line, but did not manage to stop her advance, despite cutting off her foremast tops, her mizzen and her main topgallant, and ended up running afoul of her. A furious, fifteen-minute musket duel erupted between the two ships; the crew of Redoutable had been especially trained by Lucas for such an occasion, and soon the heavy hand-grenade and small-arms fire on Victory '​s quarterdeck mortally wounded
Vice AdmiralHoratio Nelson.


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Lucas later reported:-

A violent small-arms exchange ensued; our fire became so superior that within fifteen minutes, we had silenced that of Victory; her castles were covered with dead and wounded, and admiral Nelson was killed by our gunfire. Almost at once, the castles of the enemy ship were evacuated and Victory completely ceased fighting us; but boarding her proved difficult because of her elevated third battery. I ordered the rigging of the great yard be cut and that it be carried to serve as a bridge.


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Redoutable during the late stages of the battle, dismasted and attacked by two larger ships.
The French crew were about to board Victory when
Temeraire intervened, firing on the exposed French crew at point blank range, killing or wounding 200 men, including Lucas and Dupotet, struck by a bullet to the knee who nevertheless remained at their stations.


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The crew of Redoutable rushed to man her artillery and engage Temeraire with her starboard battery, Soon,
Tonnant took a position at stern of Redoutable, which thus found herself fired upon from three larger ships. In the ensuing cannonade, Redoutable lost most of her artillery, including two guns that burst, killing several gunners. Temeraire hailed for Redoutable to surrender, but Lucas had volley of musketry fired for replies.
At 1.55 pm, Redoutable, with Lucas severely wounded, and only 99 men still fit out of 643 (300 dead and 222 severely wounded), was essentially defenceless. The
Fougueux attempted to come to her aid but came afoul of Temeraire. After ascertaining that Redoutable was too damaged to survive the aftermath of the battle, and worried that she would sink before his wounded could be evacuated, Lucas struck his colours at 2:30. Redoutable '​s aft featured a large opening and was in danger of collapsing, her rudder was shot off, and the hull was pierced in many spots.


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Being much damaged and weakened by the fight themselves, the British ships took some time to take possession of Redoutable, and Lucas had to request urgent assistance to pump water, as four of Redoutable '​s pumps were destroyed and few of her crewmen could man them.
Redoutable was freed from the rigging of Temeraire around 7 in the evening and was taken in tow by
Swiftsure. The next day, Redoutable made distress signals, and Swiftsure launched boats to evacuate her passengers; she foundered around 7, taking 196 men with her. Lucas reported:
On the 30th, at 5pm, she was forced to ask for assistance; there was only time to save the captain and the men who were not wounded, as at 7pm, her stern collapsed and she foundered. 50 wounded were saved as they clung to floating debris from the ship. Victory had sustained 160 casualties, and Temeraire 120. Of Redoutable '​s crew, 169 were taken onboard
Swiftsure; the wounded were sent to Cadiz on a cartel, and 35 men were taken prisoner to England. Lucas was received in England with great courtesy. After his release from capture, he was personally awarded the rank of Commandeur of the
Legion of Honour by Napoleon for his role during the battle.


Rob.
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